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Table 9. Summary of Within-Person Cross-Lagged Effects for Big Five and Leisure Activities Across Age Groups in RI-CLPM
 Openness  Conscientiousness  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism 
 all young middle old  all young middle old  all young middle old  all young middle old  all young middle old 
                         
Overall Participation                         
LA → P           +            
P → A                        
Physical Activities                         
LA → P                         
P → A                +        
Socializing                         
LA → P      +     +           
P → A          +           − 
Volunteering                         
LA → P               −  −      
P → A        −                 
Political Activities                         
LA → P                         
P → A                         
Artistic & Musical Activities                         
LA → P        −                 
P → A +          +            
Going-out activities                         
LA → P      +                 
P → A                        
 Openness  Conscientiousness  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism 
 all young middle old  all young middle old  all young middle old  all young middle old  all young middle old 
                         
Overall Participation                         
LA → P           +            
P → A                        
Physical Activities                         
LA → P                         
P → A                +        
Socializing                         
LA → P      +     +           
P → A          +           − 
Volunteering                         
LA → P               −  −      
P → A        −                 
Political Activities                         
LA → P                         
P → A                         
Artistic & Musical Activities                         
LA → P        −                 
P → A +          +            
Going-out activities                         
LA → P      +                 
P → A                        

Note. P = personality; LA = leisure activity; + = positive cross-lagged effect, significant on p-level <.05; − = negative cross-lagged effect, significant on p-level <.05; bold+/− = cross-lagged effect in full-sample model; non-bold +/− = cross-lagged effect in models with age-groups; grey shading = feedback effect; young = between 18 and 30 years old at T1, middle = between 31 and 50 years old at T1, older = between 51 and 75 years old at T1 in 2005

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