Skip to Main Content
Table 8. Going-out activities (LA) and Personality Parameter Estimates from the Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model (RI-CLPM)
 Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 
Number of observations used N = 43563  N = 43638  N = 43609  N = 43656  N = 43667  
Model parameters β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p 
Auto-regressive terms                
 a1 (LA) 0.109 0.011 0.000*** 0.109 0.011 0.000*** 0.107 0.011 0.000*** 0.104 0.011 0.000*** 0.107 0.011 0.000*** 
 a2 (P) 0.123 0.011 0.000*** 0.136 0.012 0.000*** 0.115 0.011 0.000*** 0.109 0.011 0.000*** 0.122 0.011 0.000*** 
Cross-lagged terms                
 c1 (LA → P) -0.005 0.008 0.493 0.019 0.009 0.033* 0.008 0.008 0.273 0.002 0.009 0.840 0.013 0.008 0.118 
 c2 (P → LA) 0.001 0.010 0.902 -0.013 0.009 0.150 0.008 0.010 0.433 0.003 0.009 0.708 0.001 0.009 0.889 
Covariances                
  Random intercepts ψ(Xi,Yi) 0.136 0.006 0.000*** -0.046 0.006 0.000*** 0.103 0.005 0.000*** -0.029 0.005 0.000*** -0.101 0.005 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv1, lu10.025 0.006 0.000*** -0.048 0.006 0.000*** 0.038 0.006 0.000*** -0.013 0.006 0.036* -0.030 0.006 0.061 
 Corr. change ψ(lv2, lu20.016 0.006 0.005** 0.006 0.006 0.371 0.018 0.006 0.001** 0.003 0.006 0.625 -0.002 0.006 0.729 
 Corr. change ψ(lv3, lu30.003 0.006 0.647 -0.005 0.006 0.420 0.015 0.006 0.008** -0.003 0.006 0.677 0.000 0.006 0.978 
 Corr. change ψ(lv4, lu40.025 0.005 0.000*** 0.008 0.006 0.144 0.012 0.005 0.014* -0.001 0.006 0.883 0.000 0.005 0.934 
Granger-Sims Causality Tests                  
Step 1: Derive Fit of Full Model                
 χ² (df) 40.384 (11)  111.86 (11)  70.654 (11)  31.548 (11)  49.127 (11)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.997 0.991  0.998 0.996  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.008 0.007  0.014 0.014  0.011 0.010  0.007 0.007  0.009 0.009  
 AIC / BIC 420716 421003  428056 428342  420309 420596  429160 429447  424569 424751  
Step 2: Constrain LA → P (c1)                
 χ² (df) 40.854 (12)  116.40 (12)  71.856 (12)  31.589 (12)  51.577 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.996 0.992  0.998 0.996  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.007 0.007  0.014 0.015  0.011 0.010  0.006 0.007  0.009 0.009  
 AIC / BIC 420715 420992  428059 428337  420308 420586  429158 429436  424570 424746  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.470 (1) 0.493 4.5422 (1) 0.033* 1.202 (1) 0.273 0.041 (1) 0.840 2.4505 (1) 0.118 
Step 3: Constrain P → LA (c2)                
 χ² (df) 40.399 (12)  113.93 (12)  71.270 (12)  31.689 (12)  49.146 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.997 0.992  0.998 0.996  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.007 0.007  0.014 0.015  0.011 0.010  0.006 0.007  0.008 0.009  
 AIC / BIC 420714 4209925  428056 428334  420308 420585  429158 429435  424567 424743  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.015 (1) 0.902 2.064 (1) 0.151 0.616 (1) 0.433 0.141 (1) 0.708 0.0194 (1) 0.889 
Step 4: Constrain all cross-lagged terms                
 χ² (df) 41.106 (13)  124.52 (13)  71.958 (13)  31.690 (13)  52.019 (13)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.996 0.992  0.998 0.997  0.999 0.999  0.999 0.997  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.007 0.007  0.014 0.015  0.010 0.010  0.006 0.007  0.008 0.009  
 AIC / BIC 420713 420982  428065 428334  420306 420575  429156 429327  424568 424739  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.7227 (2) 0.697 12.664 (2) 0.002** 1.304 (2) 0.521 0.142 (2) 0.932 2.893 (2) 0.235 
 Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 
Number of observations used N = 43563  N = 43638  N = 43609  N = 43656  N = 43667  
Model parameters β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p 
Auto-regressive terms                
 a1 (LA) 0.109 0.011 0.000*** 0.109 0.011 0.000*** 0.107 0.011 0.000*** 0.104 0.011 0.000*** 0.107 0.011 0.000*** 
 a2 (P) 0.123 0.011 0.000*** 0.136 0.012 0.000*** 0.115 0.011 0.000*** 0.109 0.011 0.000*** 0.122 0.011 0.000*** 
Cross-lagged terms                
 c1 (LA → P) -0.005 0.008 0.493 0.019 0.009 0.033* 0.008 0.008 0.273 0.002 0.009 0.840 0.013 0.008 0.118 
 c2 (P → LA) 0.001 0.010 0.902 -0.013 0.009 0.150 0.008 0.010 0.433 0.003 0.009 0.708 0.001 0.009 0.889 
Covariances                
  Random intercepts ψ(Xi,Yi) 0.136 0.006 0.000*** -0.046 0.006 0.000*** 0.103 0.005 0.000*** -0.029 0.005 0.000*** -0.101 0.005 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv1, lu10.025 0.006 0.000*** -0.048 0.006 0.000*** 0.038 0.006 0.000*** -0.013 0.006 0.036* -0.030 0.006 0.061 
 Corr. change ψ(lv2, lu20.016 0.006 0.005** 0.006 0.006 0.371 0.018 0.006 0.001** 0.003 0.006 0.625 -0.002 0.006 0.729 
 Corr. change ψ(lv3, lu30.003 0.006 0.647 -0.005 0.006 0.420 0.015 0.006 0.008** -0.003 0.006 0.677 0.000 0.006 0.978 
 Corr. change ψ(lv4, lu40.025 0.005 0.000*** 0.008 0.006 0.144 0.012 0.005 0.014* -0.001 0.006 0.883 0.000 0.005 0.934 
Granger-Sims Causality Tests                  
Step 1: Derive Fit of Full Model                
 χ² (df) 40.384 (11)  111.86 (11)  70.654 (11)  31.548 (11)  49.127 (11)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.997 0.991  0.998 0.996  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.008 0.007  0.014 0.014  0.011 0.010  0.007 0.007  0.009 0.009  
 AIC / BIC 420716 421003  428056 428342  420309 420596  429160 429447  424569 424751  
Step 2: Constrain LA → P (c1)                
 χ² (df) 40.854 (12)  116.40 (12)  71.856 (12)  31.589 (12)  51.577 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.996 0.992  0.998 0.996  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.007 0.007  0.014 0.015  0.011 0.010  0.006 0.007  0.009 0.009  
 AIC / BIC 420715 420992  428059 428337  420308 420586  429158 429436  424570 424746  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.470 (1) 0.493 4.5422 (1) 0.033* 1.202 (1) 0.273 0.041 (1) 0.840 2.4505 (1) 0.118 
Step 3: Constrain P → LA (c2)                
 χ² (df) 40.399 (12)  113.93 (12)  71.270 (12)  31.689 (12)  49.146 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.997 0.992  0.998 0.996  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.007 0.007  0.014 0.015  0.011 0.010  0.006 0.007  0.008 0.009  
 AIC / BIC 420714 4209925  428056 428334  420308 420585  429158 429435  424567 424743  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.015 (1) 0.902 2.064 (1) 0.151 0.616 (1) 0.433 0.141 (1) 0.708 0.0194 (1) 0.889 
Step 4: Constrain all cross-lagged terms                
 χ² (df) 41.106 (13)  124.52 (13)  71.958 (13)  31.690 (13)  52.019 (13)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.996 0.992  0.998 0.997  0.999 0.999  0.999 0.997  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.007 0.007  0.014 0.015  0.010 0.010  0.006 0.007  0.008 0.009  
 AIC / BIC 420713 420982  428065 428334  420306 420575  429156 429327  424568 424739  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.7227 (2) 0.697 12.664 (2) 0.002** 1.304 (2) 0.521 0.142 (2) 0.932 2.893 (2) 0.235 

Note. P = personality; LA = leisure activity; SE = standard errors; CFI = comparative fit index; TLI = Tucker-Lewis index; RMSEA = root mean square error of approximation; SRMR = standardized root mean square residual; AIC = Akaike information criterion; BIC = Bayes information criterion; Associations are coded to match paths in Figure 1. All variables were standardized to have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. Significant parameters and chi-square differences are bold. *p <.05, **p< .01, ***p<.001

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal