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Table 4. Socializing (LA) and Personality Parameter Estimates from the Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model (RI-CLPM)
  Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 
Number of observations used N = 43566  N = 43644  N = 43612  N = 43661  N = 43670  
Model parameters β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p 
Auto-regressive terms                
 a1 (LA) 0.070 0.010 0.000*** 0.075 0.010 0.000*** 0.072 0.010 0.000*** 0.073 0.010 0.000*** 0.073 0.010 0.000*** 
 a2 (P) 0.128 0.011 0.000*** 0.134 0.012 0.000*** 0.117 0.011 0.000*** 0.109 0.011 0.000*** 0.123 0.011 0.000*** 
Cross-lagged terms                
 c1 (LA → P) -0.004 0.007 0.606 0.015 0.007 0.043* 0.028 0.007 0.000*** -0.003 0.007 0.731 0.005 0.007 0.519 
 c2 (P → LA) 0.015 0.010 0.127 -0.002 0.009 0.828 0.053 0.010 0.000*** 0.004 0.009 0.650 -0.025 0.010 0.010* 
Covariances                
  Random intercepts ψ(Xi,Yi) 0.098 0.006 0.000*** -0.015 0.006 0.010* 0.140 0.006 0.000*** 0.042 0.006 0.000*** -0.071 0.006 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv1, lu10.021 0.006 0.001** -0.014 0.007 0.028* 0.044 0.006 0.000*** -0.000 0.006 0.955 -0.035 0.006 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv2, lu20.015 0.006 0.014* 0.017 0.006 0.007** 0.045 0.006 0.000*** 0.016 0.006 0.014* -0.012 0.006 0.052 
 Corr. change ψ(lv3, lu30.032 0.006 0.000*** 0.012 0.007 0.078 0.052 0.006 0.000*** 0.016 0.007 0.018* -0.016 0.006 0.012* 
 Corr. change ψ(lv4, lu40.036 0.006 0.000*** 0.034 0.006 0.000*** 0.046 0.005 0.000*** 0.021 0.006 0.001** -0.028 0.006 0.000*** 
Granger-Sims Causality Tests                   
Step 1: Derive Fit of Full Model                
 χ² (df) 53.086 (11)  71.767 (11)  76.544 (11)  31.922 (11)  34.772 (11)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.996  0.997 0.994  0.998 0.995  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.009  0.011 0.011  0.012 0.011  0.007 0.006  0.007 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 426261 426548  433321 433608  424239 424526  434131 434418  429820 430107  
Step 2: Constrain LA → P (c1)                
 χ² (df) 53.351 (12)  75.858 (12)  94.645 (12)  32.040 (12)  35.189 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.997  0.997 0.994  0.998 0.994  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.009  0.011 0.011  0.013 0.012  0.006 0.006  0.007 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 426260 426537  433323 433601  424256 424533  434129 434407  429819 430096  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.266 (1) 0.606 4.090 (1) 0.043* 18.101 (1) 0.000 *** 0.119 (1) 0.731 0.416 (1) 0.519 
Step 3: Constrain P → LA (c2)                
 χ² (df) 55.419 (12)  71.814 (12)  102.253 (12)  32.127 (12)  41.438 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.997  0.998 0.994  0.997 0.994  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.009  0.011 0.011  0.013 0.013  0.006 0.006  0.007 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 426262 426539  433319 433597  424263 424541  434130 434407  429825 430103  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 2.334 (1) 0.127 0.047 (1) 0.828 25.709 (1) 0.000 *** 0.205 (1) 0.651 6.666 (1) 0.010* 
Step 4: Constrain all cross-lagged terms                
 χ² (df) 57.255 (13)  77.533 (13)  107.338 (13)  32.504 (13)  45.549 (13)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.997  0.997 0.994  0.997 0.994  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.010  0.011 0.011  0.013 0.013  0.006 0.006  0.008 0.008  
 AIC / BIC 426261 426531  433323 433592  424266 424535  434128 434397  429827 430096  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 4.170 (2) 0.124 5.766 (2) 0.056 30.794 (2) 0.000 *** 0.583 (2) 0.747 10.777 (2) 0.005** 
  Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 
Number of observations used N = 43566  N = 43644  N = 43612  N = 43661  N = 43670  
Model parameters β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p 
Auto-regressive terms                
 a1 (LA) 0.070 0.010 0.000*** 0.075 0.010 0.000*** 0.072 0.010 0.000*** 0.073 0.010 0.000*** 0.073 0.010 0.000*** 
 a2 (P) 0.128 0.011 0.000*** 0.134 0.012 0.000*** 0.117 0.011 0.000*** 0.109 0.011 0.000*** 0.123 0.011 0.000*** 
Cross-lagged terms                
 c1 (LA → P) -0.004 0.007 0.606 0.015 0.007 0.043* 0.028 0.007 0.000*** -0.003 0.007 0.731 0.005 0.007 0.519 
 c2 (P → LA) 0.015 0.010 0.127 -0.002 0.009 0.828 0.053 0.010 0.000*** 0.004 0.009 0.650 -0.025 0.010 0.010* 
Covariances                
  Random intercepts ψ(Xi,Yi) 0.098 0.006 0.000*** -0.015 0.006 0.010* 0.140 0.006 0.000*** 0.042 0.006 0.000*** -0.071 0.006 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv1, lu10.021 0.006 0.001** -0.014 0.007 0.028* 0.044 0.006 0.000*** -0.000 0.006 0.955 -0.035 0.006 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv2, lu20.015 0.006 0.014* 0.017 0.006 0.007** 0.045 0.006 0.000*** 0.016 0.006 0.014* -0.012 0.006 0.052 
 Corr. change ψ(lv3, lu30.032 0.006 0.000*** 0.012 0.007 0.078 0.052 0.006 0.000*** 0.016 0.007 0.018* -0.016 0.006 0.012* 
 Corr. change ψ(lv4, lu40.036 0.006 0.000*** 0.034 0.006 0.000*** 0.046 0.005 0.000*** 0.021 0.006 0.001** -0.028 0.006 0.000*** 
Granger-Sims Causality Tests                   
Step 1: Derive Fit of Full Model                
 χ² (df) 53.086 (11)  71.767 (11)  76.544 (11)  31.922 (11)  34.772 (11)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.996  0.997 0.994  0.998 0.995  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.009  0.011 0.011  0.012 0.011  0.007 0.006  0.007 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 426261 426548  433321 433608  424239 424526  434131 434418  429820 430107  
Step 2: Constrain LA → P (c1)                
 χ² (df) 53.351 (12)  75.858 (12)  94.645 (12)  32.040 (12)  35.189 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.997  0.997 0.994  0.998 0.994  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.009  0.011 0.011  0.013 0.012  0.006 0.006  0.007 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 426260 426537  433323 433601  424256 424533  434129 434407  429819 430096  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.266 (1) 0.606 4.090 (1) 0.043* 18.101 (1) 0.000 *** 0.119 (1) 0.731 0.416 (1) 0.519 
Step 3: Constrain P → LA (c2)                
 χ² (df) 55.419 (12)  71.814 (12)  102.253 (12)  32.127 (12)  41.438 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.997  0.998 0.994  0.997 0.994  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.009  0.011 0.011  0.013 0.013  0.006 0.006  0.007 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 426262 426539  433319 433597  424263 424541  434130 434407  429825 430103  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 2.334 (1) 0.127 0.047 (1) 0.828 25.709 (1) 0.000 *** 0.205 (1) 0.651 6.666 (1) 0.010* 
Step 4: Constrain all cross-lagged terms                
 χ² (df) 57.255 (13)  77.533 (13)  107.338 (13)  32.504 (13)  45.549 (13)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.997  0.997 0.994  0.997 0.994  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.010  0.011 0.011  0.013 0.013  0.006 0.006  0.008 0.008  
 AIC / BIC 426261 426531  433323 433592  424266 424535  434128 434397  429827 430096  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 4.170 (2) 0.124 5.766 (2) 0.056 30.794 (2) 0.000 *** 0.583 (2) 0.747 10.777 (2) 0.005** 

Note. P = personality; LA = leisure activity; SE = standard errors; Corr. change = within-person correlated change; CFI = comparative fit index; TLI = Tucker-Lewis index; RMSEA = root mean square error of approximation; SRMR = standardized root mean square residual; AIC = Akaike information criterion; BIC = Bayes information criterion; Associations are coded to match paths in Figure 1. All variables were standardized to have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. Significant parameters and chi-square differences are bold. *p <.05, **p< .01, ***p<.001

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