Skip to Main Content
Table 3. Physical Activities (LA) and Personality Parameter Estimates from the Random-Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model (RI-CLPM)
  Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 
Number of observations used N = 43563  N = 43644  N = 43609  N = 43657  N = 43667  
Model parameters β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p 
Auto-regressive terms                
 a1 (LA) 0.152 0.011 0.000*** 0.153 0.011 0.000*** 0.155 0.011 0.000*** 0.153 0.011 0.000*** 0.154 0.011 0.000*** 
 a2 (P) 0.121 0.011 0.000*** 0.134 0.012 0.000*** 0.116 0.011 0.000*** 0.110 0.011 0.000*** 0.121 0.011 0.000*** 
Cross-lagged terms                
 c1 (LA → P) -0.001 0.008 0.852 0.009 0.009 0.320 0.008 0.008 0.279 0.009 0.009 0.311 0.000 0.008 0.989 
 c2 (P → LA) -0.006 0.009 0.533 0.009 0.009 0.315 -0.003 0.010 0.785 0.025 0.008 0.003** -0.009 0.009 0.322 
Covariances                
 Random intercepts ψ(Xi,Yi) 0.146 0.006 0.000*** -0.011 0.006 0.055 0.068 0.005 0.000*** -0.011 0.006 0.045* -0.082 0.006 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv1, lu10.029 0.006 0.000*** -0.002 0.006 0.745 0.025 0.006 0.000*** 0.001 0.006 0.832 -0.023 0.006 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv2, lu20.013 0.006 0.022 0.013 0.006 0.024* 0.014 0.005 0.009** 0.009 0.006 0.127 0.001 0.006 0.859 
 Corr. change ψ(lv3, lu30.013 0.006 0.025 0.001 0.006 0.871 0.006 0.006 0.275 0.008 0.006 0.223 -0.007 0.006 0.255 
 Corr. change ψ(lv4, lu40.018 0.005 0.001** 0.014 0.006 0.011* 0.002 0.005 0.691 0.006 0.006 0.249 -0.016 0.006 0.003** 
Granger-Sims Causality Tests                     
Step 1: Derive Fit of Full Model                
 χ² (df) 46.763 (11)  53.933 (11)  66.981 (11)  26.807 (11)  41.850 (11)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.996  0.999 0.999  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.007  0.009 0.008  0.011 0.009  0.006 0.006  0.008 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 418095 418381  425769 426055  418337 418624  426704 426991  422247 422533  
Step 2: Constrain LA → P (c1)                
 χ² (df) 46.798 (12)  54.923 (12)  68.151 (12)  27.832 (12)  41.850 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.999  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.007  0.009 0.009  0.010 0.009  0.005 0.006  0.008 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 418093 418371  425768 426046  418336 418614  426703 426981  422245 422523  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.0348 (1) 0.852 0.990 (1) 0.320 1.170 (1) 0.279 1.025 (1) 0.311 0.000 (1) 0.989 
Step 3: Constrain P → LA (c2)                
 χ² (df) 47.151 (12)  54.944 (12)  67.055 (12)  35.586 (12)  42.829 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.007  0.009 0.009  0.010 0.009  0.007 0.007  0.008 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 418093 418371  425768 426046  418335 418613  426711 426989  422246 422524  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.387 (1) 0.534 1.011 (1) 0.315 0.0745 (1) 0.785 8.778 (1) 0.003** 0.980 (1) 0.322 
Step 4: Constrain all cross-lagged terms                
 χ² (df) 47.165 (13)  55.283 (13)  68.938 (13)  35.776 (13)  43.098 (13)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.007  0.009 0.009  0.010 0.009  0.006 0.007  0.007 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 418091 418360  425766 426036  418335 418604  426709 426978  422244 422513  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.402 (2) 0.818 1.350 (2) 0.509 1.957 (2) 0.376 8.969 (2) 0.011* 1.248 (2) 0.536 
  Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 
Number of observations used N = 43563  N = 43644  N = 43609  N = 43657  N = 43667  
Model parameters β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p 
Auto-regressive terms                
 a1 (LA) 0.152 0.011 0.000*** 0.153 0.011 0.000*** 0.155 0.011 0.000*** 0.153 0.011 0.000*** 0.154 0.011 0.000*** 
 a2 (P) 0.121 0.011 0.000*** 0.134 0.012 0.000*** 0.116 0.011 0.000*** 0.110 0.011 0.000*** 0.121 0.011 0.000*** 
Cross-lagged terms                
 c1 (LA → P) -0.001 0.008 0.852 0.009 0.009 0.320 0.008 0.008 0.279 0.009 0.009 0.311 0.000 0.008 0.989 
 c2 (P → LA) -0.006 0.009 0.533 0.009 0.009 0.315 -0.003 0.010 0.785 0.025 0.008 0.003** -0.009 0.009 0.322 
Covariances                
 Random intercepts ψ(Xi,Yi) 0.146 0.006 0.000*** -0.011 0.006 0.055 0.068 0.005 0.000*** -0.011 0.006 0.045* -0.082 0.006 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv1, lu10.029 0.006 0.000*** -0.002 0.006 0.745 0.025 0.006 0.000*** 0.001 0.006 0.832 -0.023 0.006 0.000*** 
 Corr. change ψ(lv2, lu20.013 0.006 0.022 0.013 0.006 0.024* 0.014 0.005 0.009** 0.009 0.006 0.127 0.001 0.006 0.859 
 Corr. change ψ(lv3, lu30.013 0.006 0.025 0.001 0.006 0.871 0.006 0.006 0.275 0.008 0.006 0.223 -0.007 0.006 0.255 
 Corr. change ψ(lv4, lu40.018 0.005 0.001** 0.014 0.006 0.011* 0.002 0.005 0.691 0.006 0.006 0.249 -0.016 0.006 0.003** 
Granger-Sims Causality Tests                     
Step 1: Derive Fit of Full Model                
 χ² (df) 46.763 (11)  53.933 (11)  66.981 (11)  26.807 (11)  41.850 (11)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.996  0.999 0.999  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.007  0.009 0.008  0.011 0.009  0.006 0.006  0.008 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 418095 418381  425769 426055  418337 418624  426704 426991  422247 422533  
Step 2: Constrain LA → P (c1)                
 χ² (df) 46.798 (12)  54.923 (12)  68.151 (12)  27.832 (12)  41.850 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.999  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.007  0.009 0.009  0.010 0.009  0.005 0.006  0.008 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 418093 418371  425768 426046  418336 418614  426703 426981  422245 422523  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.0348 (1) 0.852 0.990 (1) 0.320 1.170 (1) 0.279 1.025 (1) 0.311 0.000 (1) 0.989 
Step 3: Constrain P → LA (c2)                
 χ² (df) 47.151 (12)  54.944 (12)  67.055 (12)  35.586 (12)  42.829 (12)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.007  0.009 0.009  0.010 0.009  0.007 0.007  0.008 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 418093 418371  425768 426046  418335 418613  426711 426989  422246 422524  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.387 (1) 0.534 1.011 (1) 0.315 0.0745 (1) 0.785 8.778 (1) 0.003** 0.980 (1) 0.322 
Step 4: Constrain all cross-lagged terms                
 χ² (df) 47.165 (13)  55.283 (13)  68.938 (13)  35.776 (13)  43.098 (13)  
 CFI / TLI 0.999 0.998  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.997  0.999 0.998  0.999 0.998  
 RMSEA / SRMR 0.009 0.007  0.009 0.009  0.010 0.009  0.006 0.007  0.007 0.007  
 AIC / BIC 418091 418360  425766 426036  418335 418604  426709 426978  422244 422513  
 χ² Difference Test (diffdf) p 0.402 (2) 0.818 1.350 (2) 0.509 1.957 (2) 0.376 8.969 (2) 0.011* 1.248 (2) 0.536 

Note. P = personality; LA = leisure activity; SE = standard errors; Corr. change = within-person correlated change; CFI = comparative fit index; TLI = Tucker-Lewis index; RMSEA = root mean square error of approximation; SRMR = standardized root mean square residual; AIC = Akaike information criterion; BIC = Bayes information criterion; Associations are coded to match paths in Figure 1. All variables were standardized to have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. Significant parameters and chi-square differences are bold. *p <.05, **p< .01, ***p<.001

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal