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Table 1.

Groundwater Replenishment System Case Study Overview.

OVERVIEW
Location Orange County, California 
Groundwater Challenges Seawater intrusion and groundwater overdraft 
MAR Motivating Factors Halting seawater intrusion; increasing reliability of groundwater supply 
MAR Project Goal Maximize use and storage of purified wastewater; halt further seawater Intrusion 
Recharge method Injection wells and infiltration basins 
Water source Recycled wastewater 
Key actors Orange County Water District (OCWD); Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) 
Nonregulatory challenges Technical—maintaining percolation capacity of recharge basins and ensuring adequate water flows from OCSD 
 Institutional—establishing and maintaining public acceptance for recharge with treated wastewater 
Regulatory issues OCWD must meet water quality requirements set by the state, but no significant regulatory challenges were reported in meeting these requirements. 
Milestones 1975—Water Factory 21 begins operation 
 2002—Construction of the Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) begins 
 2004—Water Factory 21 ceases operation 
 2008—GWRS begins operation 
 2015—Completion of first GWRS expansion 
 2023—Projected completion date of second GWRS expansion 
Current status First two phases implemented, with a final expansion online in 2023; in the 2017–2018 water year, the project recharged 105,624 AF 
Cost $850/AF (without grants factored into cost); $525/AF (with grants and OCSD contributions factored into cost) 
OVERVIEW
Location Orange County, California 
Groundwater Challenges Seawater intrusion and groundwater overdraft 
MAR Motivating Factors Halting seawater intrusion; increasing reliability of groundwater supply 
MAR Project Goal Maximize use and storage of purified wastewater; halt further seawater Intrusion 
Recharge method Injection wells and infiltration basins 
Water source Recycled wastewater 
Key actors Orange County Water District (OCWD); Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) 
Nonregulatory challenges Technical—maintaining percolation capacity of recharge basins and ensuring adequate water flows from OCSD 
 Institutional—establishing and maintaining public acceptance for recharge with treated wastewater 
Regulatory issues OCWD must meet water quality requirements set by the state, but no significant regulatory challenges were reported in meeting these requirements. 
Milestones 1975—Water Factory 21 begins operation 
 2002—Construction of the Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) begins 
 2004—Water Factory 21 ceases operation 
 2008—GWRS begins operation 
 2015—Completion of first GWRS expansion 
 2023—Projected completion date of second GWRS expansion 
Current status First two phases implemented, with a final expansion online in 2023; in the 2017–2018 water year, the project recharged 105,624 AF 
Cost $850/AF (without grants factored into cost); $525/AF (with grants and OCSD contributions factored into cost) 
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