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Table 1.

SWIFT Case Study Overview.

Location Hampton Roads Sanitation District, Virginia 
Groundwater challenges Declining water pressure within the aquifer, hydraulic gradient reversal, land subsidence, and saltwater intrusion 
Motivating factors for MAR Meeting current and future wastewater effluent limitations for nutrients, insulation from uncertainty surrounding future surface water quality standards, and regional groundwater overdraft 
Goal of MAR project Recharge approximately 100 million gallons per day (MGD) 
Recharge method Injection wells 
Water source SWIFT Water (municipal wastewater receiving advanced treatment to meet drinking water standards) 
Key actor(s) HRSD; EPA, Region 3; Virginia Department of Environmental Quality; Virginia Department of Health; Potomac Aquifer Recharge Oversight Committee 
Nonregulatory challenges Technical—Ensuring chemical compatibility of recharge water with native groundwater and aquifer materials, establishing appropriate control points, understanding spatial and temporal differences in groundwater flow, and avoiding corrosion or clogging of treatment and injection equipment 
 Institutional—Expanding areas of expertise to enable successful implementation, public/stakeholder engagement, and creation of oversight body 
 Funding—Uncertainty about whether EPA will approve reprioritization of funding under consent decree 
Regulatory issues Lack of direct state regulatory authority over underground injection combined with strong state interest in protecting groundwater quality, monitoring requirements, contingency planning needed for potential problems, uncertainty about whether EPA will approve consent decree amendments, and regulatory implications of reducing nutrient discharges below mandatory limits 
Milestones 2014—Feasibility analysis and preplanning begin 
 2016—Room-scale pilots of treatment process options take place 
 2017—HRSD submits Integrated Plan to EPA 
 2018—One-MGD demonstration facility (SWIFT Research Center) begins operating 
 2019—Legislature establishes Potomac Aquifer Recharge Oversight Committee 
Current status Demonstration facility and planning for full-scale implementation 
Cost US$1.1 billion estimated for full-scale construction; US$21–US$43 million estimated for full-scale annual operating costs 
Location Hampton Roads Sanitation District, Virginia 
Groundwater challenges Declining water pressure within the aquifer, hydraulic gradient reversal, land subsidence, and saltwater intrusion 
Motivating factors for MAR Meeting current and future wastewater effluent limitations for nutrients, insulation from uncertainty surrounding future surface water quality standards, and regional groundwater overdraft 
Goal of MAR project Recharge approximately 100 million gallons per day (MGD) 
Recharge method Injection wells 
Water source SWIFT Water (municipal wastewater receiving advanced treatment to meet drinking water standards) 
Key actor(s) HRSD; EPA, Region 3; Virginia Department of Environmental Quality; Virginia Department of Health; Potomac Aquifer Recharge Oversight Committee 
Nonregulatory challenges Technical—Ensuring chemical compatibility of recharge water with native groundwater and aquifer materials, establishing appropriate control points, understanding spatial and temporal differences in groundwater flow, and avoiding corrosion or clogging of treatment and injection equipment 
 Institutional—Expanding areas of expertise to enable successful implementation, public/stakeholder engagement, and creation of oversight body 
 Funding—Uncertainty about whether EPA will approve reprioritization of funding under consent decree 
Regulatory issues Lack of direct state regulatory authority over underground injection combined with strong state interest in protecting groundwater quality, monitoring requirements, contingency planning needed for potential problems, uncertainty about whether EPA will approve consent decree amendments, and regulatory implications of reducing nutrient discharges below mandatory limits 
Milestones 2014—Feasibility analysis and preplanning begin 
 2016—Room-scale pilots of treatment process options take place 
 2017—HRSD submits Integrated Plan to EPA 
 2018—One-MGD demonstration facility (SWIFT Research Center) begins operating 
 2019—Legislature establishes Potomac Aquifer Recharge Oversight Committee 
Current status Demonstration facility and planning for full-scale implementation 
Cost US$1.1 billion estimated for full-scale construction; US$21–US$43 million estimated for full-scale annual operating costs 

Note: EPA = U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; HRSD = Hampton Roads Sanitation District; MAR = managed aquifer recharge; MGD = million gallons per day; SWIFT = Sustainable Water Initiative for Tomorrow.

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