Skip to Main Content
Table 1.

2015–2016 total air pollutant emissions and associated health costs for the four major power stations in the Latrobe Valley and the electricity sector of Australia. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2021.00072.t1

Air Pollutant / $A Health CostsLoy Yang ALoy Yang BHazelwoodYallournLatrobe ValleyAustralia
CO2 [Mt-CO2e]a 19.1 10.6 15.8 16.5 61.93 201.2b 
$A2016c $1.14B $629M $932M $974M $3.7B $12.0B 
SO2 (kg)d 6.10E+07 2.38E+07 1.69E+07 2.13E+07 1.23E+08 4.87E+08 
$A2016c $1.61B $628M $445M $561M $3.2B $12.8B 
NOx [kg]d 2.05E+07 1.48E+07 2.76E+07 1.52E+07 7.82E+07 3.63E+08 
$A2016c,e $504M $365M $679M $374M $1.9B $8.9B 
PM2.5 (kg)d 7.20E+05 5.25E+05 6.98E+05 8.35E+05 2.77E+06 8.26E+06 
$A2016f $37M $27M $36M $43M $143M $425M 
Hg (kg)d 427 384 406 297 1514 2801 
Hg (kg)g 417 231 345 360 1353 — 
$A2016c $15M $13M $14M $10M $52M $97M 
Cd (kg)d 47 39 40 44 170 482 
$A2016c $9.9M $8.2M $8.4M $9.2M $35.6M $101M 
Pb (kg)d 222 83 200 146 651 3180 
$A2016c $9.8M $3.7M $8.8M $6.5M $28.8M $141M 
As (kg)d 68 31 67 56 222 1303 
$A2016c $0.6M $0.3M $0.6M $0.5M $1.9M $11M 
Total costs $A2016 $3.33B $1.67B $1.12B $1.98B $9.08B $34.5B 
Air Pollutant / $A Health CostsLoy Yang ALoy Yang BHazelwoodYallournLatrobe ValleyAustralia
CO2 [Mt-CO2e]a 19.1 10.6 15.8 16.5 61.93 201.2b 
$A2016c $1.14B $629M $932M $974M $3.7B $12.0B 
SO2 (kg)d 6.10E+07 2.38E+07 1.69E+07 2.13E+07 1.23E+08 4.87E+08 
$A2016c $1.61B $628M $445M $561M $3.2B $12.8B 
NOx [kg]d 2.05E+07 1.48E+07 2.76E+07 1.52E+07 7.82E+07 3.63E+08 
$A2016c,e $504M $365M $679M $374M $1.9B $8.9B 
PM2.5 (kg)d 7.20E+05 5.25E+05 6.98E+05 8.35E+05 2.77E+06 8.26E+06 
$A2016f $37M $27M $36M $43M $143M $425M 
Hg (kg)d 427 384 406 297 1514 2801 
Hg (kg)g 417 231 345 360 1353 — 
$A2016c $15M $13M $14M $10M $52M $97M 
Cd (kg)d 47 39 40 44 170 482 
$A2016c $9.9M $8.2M $8.4M $9.2M $35.6M $101M 
Pb (kg)d 222 83 200 146 651 3180 
$A2016c $9.8M $3.7M $8.8M $6.5M $28.8M $141M 
As (kg)d 68 31 67 56 222 1303 
$A2016c $0.6M $0.3M $0.6M $0.5M $1.9M $11M 
Total costs $A2016 $3.33B $1.67B $1.12B $1.98B $9.08B $34.5B 

aCO2 emissions for July 2015–June 2016 calculated by individual generator using the AEMO distribution data combined with carbon intensity data.

bAustralian data for the combined electricity, gas, and water sector constituting 37.7% of Australia’s total greenhouse gas emissions in 2016 from Australia’s national inventory by sector 2016 report.

cThe cost associated with each kilogram of pollutantd released to the air from coal combustion following Nedellec and Rabl (2016) Table VII (applying inflation adjustment of 1.8% annually to 2016 and an exchange rate of 1 EUR = 0.7 AUD).

dPollutant emissions provided by the National Pollutant Inventory (www.npi.gov.au).

eNOx treated identically to NO2 for cost, in the absence of separate NO2 pollution figures for Australia.

fPM2.5 pollutant cost is taken as $AUD201651.39 per kg ($AUD201147 per kg inflation adjusted; Aust et al., 2013) for the Latrobe Valley. This cost impact is also applied to national figures as most electricity generation is away from densely populated centers.

gHg derived from July 2015 to June 2016 AEMO CO2 emissionsa (CO2/44 × 12 × 0.08 mgkg–1).

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal