In early September of 1863, Alfred Sully’s command engaged a Dakota encampment at Whitestone Hill in southeastern North Dakota, and the U.S. Army killed 150 to 300 Native men, women and children. In the first decade of the twentieth century, North Dakota Congressman Thomas Marshall and the Grand Army of the Republic erected a Civil War “battlefield” monument at Whitestone Hill. The term “battlefield” reflects the political interpretation of an elite minority, and it has persistently shirked and slighted Whitestone Hill’s multivocal majority.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.