This article explores contradictions in Reagan's 1966 gubernatorial campaign rhetoric and between his campaign talk and later policy by studying Reagan's reactions to the Free Speech Movement at the University of California, Berkeley. Based on the information available to him, Reagan's seemingly contradictory positions and policies were consistent, the author concludes, with his fundamental ideology and personal moral code.

Notes

Notes
1
Steven Warsaw's first-hand account of the Free Speech Movement, The Trouble in Berkeley (Berkeley, CA: Diablo Press, 1965).
2
"Reagan Tells Students: 'Obey or Get Out,'" Los Angeles Times, December 3, 1966.
3
W. J. Rorabaugh describes the scene in much greater detail in his comprehensive work on the subject, Berkeley at War: the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1089), 21
4
http://www.leginfo.ca.gov
W. J. Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War, 19,
5
John R. Searle, The Campus War: A Sympathetic Look at the University in Agony (New York: The World Publishing Company, 1971);
David Lance Goines, The Free Speech Movement: Coming of Age in the 1960s (Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1993);
Robert Cohen, ed., The Free Speech Movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960s (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002);
W. J. Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War: The 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989);
Hal Draper, Berkeley: The New Student Revolt (New York: Grove Press, 1965);
Jo Freeman, At Berkeley in the 1960s: The Education of an Activist, 1961-1965 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004);
Max Heirich, The Beginning: Berkeley 1964 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1968);
Seymour Martin Lipset, ed., The Berkeley Student Revolt: Facts and Interpretations (New York: Anchor Books, 1965);
Michael V. Miller, ed., Revolution at Berkeley (New York: The Dial Press, 1965);
Steven Warsaw, The Trouble in Berkeley (Berkeley, CA: Diablo Press, 1965).
6
Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War, 10-12.
7
Gerard J. De Groot, "Ronald Reagan and Student Unrest in California, 1966-1970," The Pacific Historical Review 65:1 (February 1996): 107-129.
Gerald Home, Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s (New York: Da Capo Press, 1997).
8
Matthew Dallek makes this argument in his masterful work on Reagan's gubernatorial campaign, The Right Moment: Ronald Reagan's First Victory and the Decisive Turning Point in American Politics (New York: The Free Press, 2000).
Lisa McGirr, Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).
10
Lou Cannon, Governor Reagan: His Rise to Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2003),
President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime (New York: Public Affairs, 1991).
Garry Wills, Reagan's America: Innocents at Home (New York: Doubleday, 1987)
Bill Boyarsky, Ronald Reagan: His Life and Rise to the Presidency (New York: Random House, 1981).
Jackson K. Putnam, in his recent article, "Governor Reagan: A Reappraisal," California History 83:4 (2006): 24-45,
11
Gerard J. De Groot makes this argument in his article, "A Goddamned Electable Person': The 1966 California Gubernatorial Campaign of Ronald Reagan," which appeared in the journal of the Historical Association, History 82:267 (1997): 429-448.
12
Franklyn C. Nofziger, Reagan's press secretary, makes this point in his oral history, Press Secretary for Ronald Reagan, 1966, 5.
Sarah Sharp, 1978.
14
Reagan's oral histories, On Becoming Governor, 4.
Sarah Sharp, 1979.
15
Oral History of William E. Roberts, Professional Campaign Management and the Candidate, 1960-1966, 17.
Sarah Sharp, 1979.
17
Dallek, The Right Moment, 227.
18
Letter to Ronald Reagan from W. S. McBirnie, dated November 30, 1965, 1. Folder [66: The Creative Society], Box C31, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
19
Ibid., 4.
20
Ibid., 3.
21
"Reagan Says McBirnie Letter Was Stolen," Glendale News Press. Folder [66: The Creative Society], Box C31, 1966
22
" 'Extremist' Created Reagan's Campaign Plan, Brown Claims," by Richard Bergholz, Los Angeles Times, October 13, 1966, 3.
23
"Reagan Charges Democrats Stole McBirnie Letter," by Paul Beck, Los Angeles Times, October 14, 1966, 3·
25
California Republican Platform, 1966, 3. Folder [66 campaign: RR (I); (4);(2/4)], Box C32, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
26
A Plan For Action, Ronald Reagan's Announcement of Candidacy, January 4, 1966, 9. Folder [RR Speeches & Statements Book I (I)-(5), I-x], Box C30, Campaign Speeches and Statements, 1966
27
Ronald Reagan, The Creative Society (New York: Devin-Adair Company, 1968), 123.
28
Daryl E. Lembke, "Student Protest Leaders Spurn UC's Peace Offer," Los Angeles Times, December 8, 1964, 1.
29
Gene Blake, "New Left Wing Club Spreading," Los Angeles Times, November 23, 1964, 2.
30
According to Rorabaugh, "[I]n most respects the fsm followers mirrored their fellow students who did not sit in. Largely from middle-class families, the protestors had middle-class aspirations and values... and might be described as liberal Democrats." Berkeley at War, 33.
31
Ibid.
32
"The Real Issue at Berkeley," Editorials, Los Angeles Timest December 9, 1964, A4.
33
Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War, 34.
34
Ray Colvig, "From Free Speech to Steady State, 1964-1974." Office of Public Information, University of California, June 1974, 10.
35
Rowland Evans and Robert Novak, "The Agony of Berkeley," San Francisco Examiner, October 1, 1965.
Education -Campus unrest -Berkeley 1965-66 [Order and Freedom on Campus (2/2)], Box G0156,
36
Ibid.
37
Ibid.
38
Dave Hope, "Reagan Critical of U.C. Officialdom," Oakland Tribune, October 22, 1965. Folder [66 ed: University of California (1/2)], Box C34, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
39
A Plan for Action, 8.
40
"1,000 Parade at UC to Mark '64 Arrests." Los Angeles Times, December 3, 1965, 3.
41
Reagan oral history transcript, On Becoming Governor, 21.
42
Spencer oral history transcript, 31.
43
Reagan oral history transcript, On Becoming Governor, 20.
44
Spencer oral history transcript, 31.
45
Ibid.
46
"The California Poll," conducted by Field Research Corporation, released June 24, 1966, 2. Folder [Cam- paign Polls (2/3)], Box C32, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
47
Ibid.
48
California Democratic Platform, 1966, 5. Folder [egb (3)], Box C31, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
49
Robert M. Blanchard, "Governor Calls Dispute 'Unnecessary Quarrel.'Sees 'No Justification' for Out- breaks at UC but has No Plans on Interfering," Los Angeles Times, December 9, 1964, 2.
50
Kenneth B. Holden and submitted to Reagan for Governor Headquarters by basico, March 31, 1966. Folder [RR Material <Folder Two> (3)], Box C32, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
51
Ibid.
52
Citizens Committee to Elect Ronald Reagan Governor News Release, prepared by Lyn Nofziger, April 1, 1966, 1. Folder [ed: Academic Freedom], Box C33, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
53
William Trombley, "UC Berkeley Cracks Down on Insurgents," Los Angeles Times, April 5, 1966, Bi.
54
Ronald Reagan Speech at Cow Palace, May 12, 1966. Folder [RR Speeches and State- ments Book II (5)], Box C30, Campaign Speeches and Statements, 1966
55
Mario Savio, quoted in Warshaw, The Trouble In Berkeley, 27.
56
Jack Weinberg, quoted in Warshaw, The Trouble In Berkeley, 27.
57
Campaign speech dated March 24, 1966, 5. Folder [RR Speeches and Statements Book II (1)], Box C30, Campaign Speeches and Statements, 1966
58
Transcript of the abc radio and τν program, abc's Issues and Answers, October 2, 1966, 14-15. Folder [66: Campaign Debate (Issues & Answers/Meet the Press Transcripts)], Box C31, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
59
Ibid.
60
"Statement by Reagan on Viet War Criticized," Los Angeles Times, October 12, 1965, 17.
61
The Carpinteria Herald, June 20, 1966.
62
Ibid.
63
Ibid.
64
"Statement by Reagan on Viet War Criticized," Los Angeles Times, October 12, 1965, 17.
65
Eleventh Report of the Senate Fact-Finding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities, California Legisla- ture, 1961, 9,
66
Thirteenth Report of the Senate Fact-Finding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities, conducted by the California Legislature, June 1965, 146.
68
Clark Kerr, The Gold and the Blue: A Personal Memoir of the University of California, 1949-1967, Volume Two: Political Turmoil (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2003), 58-65.
69
Thirteenth Report of the Senate Fact-Finding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities, conducted by the California Legislature, June 1965, 147.
70
Ibid., 128.
71
Jack S. McDowell, "Senate Unit Blisters Kerr," San Francisco Examiner, May 6, 1966. Folder [66 ed: University of California (1/2)], Box C34, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
72
Ibid.
73
Ronald Reagan Speech at Cow Palace, May 12, 1966. Book II-5, Box C30, 1966 cam- paign -speeches and statements, Ronald Reagan Gubernatorial Papers, 1966-75,
74
Citizens Committee to Elect Ronald Reagan Governor News Release, prepared by Lyn Nofziger, May 18, 1966. Folder [ed: University of California (1/2)], Box C34, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
75
Ibid.
76
Long Beach News and Argus, May 24, 1966, 2. Folder [RR Speeches and Statements Book II (3)], Box C30, Campaign Speeches and Statements, 1966
77
Edward W. Carter, chairman, Board of Regents, University of California, from Ronald Reagan, May 20, 1966. Folder [66 ed: University of California (1/2)], Box C34, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
78
"Counterblast at UC Slanderers," editorial, San Francisco Chronicle, October 5. 1965, 40.
79
Citizens Committee to Elect Ronald Reagan Governor News Release, May 26, 1966, 2. Folder [Cam- paign Polls (1/3)], Box C32, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
80
Citizens Committee to Elect Ronald Reagan Governor News Release, Weekly Report, May 26, 1966. Folder [Campaign Polls (1/3)], Box C32, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
81
Rorabaugh, Berkeley at War, 109.
82
Memorandum to Ronald Reagan from basico staff re: Berkeley, October 12, 1966. Folder ed: Campus Unrest (2/2), Box C33, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
83
Ibid.
84
Bill Boyarsky, "Reagan Hit for Black Power Boost," Folder 66: ed: University of Califor- nia (2/2), Box C34, 1966 Campaign Subject Files, 1966
85
Bill Boyarsky, "Reagan Hit for Black Power Boost," Folder 66: ed: University of California (2/2), Box C34, 1966 Campaign Subject Files, 1966
86
"Reagan Urges Carmichael Not to Speak at U.C.," Los Angeles Times, October 19, 1966, 25.
87
"Carmichael Hits U.S. Policies at Berkeley Rally," Los Angeles Times, October 30, 1966, Ci.
88
"Brown, Reagan Denounce Speech by Carmichael," Los Angeles Times, October 31, 1966, 3.
89
"Brown Says He Ordered Demonstrators' Arrests," Los Angeles Times, December 4, 1964, 3.
90
Carl Greenberg, "gop Gubernatorial Aspirant Says Brown's Administration Fiddled While L.A. Burned," Los Angeles Times, August 19, 1965, 3.
91
Citizens Committee to Elect Ronald Reagan Governor News Release, prepared by Lyn Nofziger, April 1, 1966. Folder [66 ed: University of California (2/2)], Box C34, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
92
Leadership and Morality, 1. Folder [Binder: Creative Society (2)], Box C36, Campaign Research Materials, 1966
93
Franklyn C. Nofziger, oral history transcript, 37.
94
Issue statement, Leadership and Morality , 2.
95
Ronald Reagan Speaks Out On the Issues #6: Political Appointments. Folder [RR Material <Folder Two> (2)], Box C32, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
96
Reagan campaign kick-off telecast, 8. Folder [rr Speeches and Statements Book II (4)], Box C30, Cam- paign Speeches and Statements, 1966
97
Higher Education, 1-2. Folder [66 ed: Higher], Box C34, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
98
Reagan campaign kick-off telecast, 9.
99
Issue statement, Higher Education, 2.
100
Reagan campaign kick-off telecast, 8.
101
Ibid., 9-10.
102
Identification of Donors Reported In Campaign Statement Of Committee to Re-Elect Governor Brown, 2, 6, and 8. Folder [egb -Political Appointments], Box C31, Campaign Subject Files, 1966
103
Reagan For Governor Committee Northern California Directory. Folder [Northern California Campaign Schedules (1)], Box C29, Campaign Schedules, 1966
104
Letter to Mr. William E. Forbes from Ronald Reagan, dated Sept. 2, 1966. Folder [Flint-Foy], box C8, Campaign Correspondence, 1966
105
Letter from H. R. Haldeman to Ronald Reagan, June 20, 1966. Folder [Haggerty -Halin], Box Cio, Campaign Correspondence, 1966
106
Ibid.
107
Letter to Mr. and Mrs. William Randolph Hearst, Jr., from Ronald Reagan, August 16, 1960, Folder [Hedley -Henderson], Box Cio, Campaign Correspondence, 1966
108
Letter to Mr. Randolph Hearst Isic] from Ronald Reagan, Oct. 7, 1966. Folder [Hedley -Henderson], box Cio, Campaign Correspondence, 1966
109
Ibid.
111
Letter from John Spaun to Ronald Reagan, Nov. 5, 1966, 2. Folder [66 Campaign: Gov. Personal Corre- spondence -Letters of Particular Interest (M -Z)], Box C29, Campaign Correspondence, 1966
112
Ibid.
113
Minutes of Regents' executive session, Jan. 20, 1967, 1. Folder [Regent's meetings -Jan. 67], box G057,
114
Ibid.
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