Municipal water rights played the central role in the 1913-1915 campaign to annex San Fernando Valley communities to the city of Los Angeles. Jordan Scavo explores why the water issue was downplayed by both sides in the 1996-2002 Valley secession campaign. He finds that the water rights debates are a measure of the extent to which the Valley and the city have become bound to each other.

Notes

Notes
1
Catherine Mulholland, William Mulholland and the Rise of Los Angeles (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Uni- versity of California Press, 2000), 246.
2
"Mulholland Nails Graham Line," Los Angeles Times, 10 April 1913, sec. 2, p. 1;
"Immense Flow of Owens River Water Ready for Los Angeles and the Territory That's to Become Part of Great City," Los Angeles Times, 14 December 1913, sec. 6, p. 1.
3
Vincent Ostrom, Water & Politics: A Study of Water Policies and Administration in the Development of Los Angeles (The Haynes Foundation: Los Angeles, 1953), 30-31.
4
Ostrom, Water & Politics, 27-31,
Richard Bigger and James D. Kitchen, How the Cities Grew: A Century of Municipal Independence and Expansion in Metropolitan Los Angeles (Los Angeles: Bureau of Governmental Research, 1952), 19.
5
California Statutes, 1850-1851, California State Assembly Chief Clerk, 329. http://192.234.213.35/ clerkarchive/(accessed 12 March 2009).
6
California Statutes, 1873-1874, California State Assembly Chief Clerk, 633. http://192.234.213.35/ clerkarchive/ (accessed 13 March 2009).
7
Robert Fogelson, The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univer- sity of California Press, 1967; reprint 1993), 96.
8
California Statutes, 1903, California State Assembly Chief Clerk, 555. http://192.234.213.35/clerkarchive/ (accessed 20 May 2009).
9
Vernon Irrigation Company v. City of Los Angeles, No. 19388, Supreme Court of California, 106 Cal. 237, 8 March 1895.http://www.lexisnexis.com.libproxy.csun.edu:2O48/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview. do?docLinkInd=true&risb=2i_T59i5io9O75&format=GNBFi&sort=RELEVANCE&.startDocNo=i&results UrlKey=29_T59i5io9O79&cisb=22_T59i5iO9O77&.treeMax=true&treeWidth=o&.csi=486i&docNo=i3 (accessed 4 March 2009).
10
Los Angeles v. Pomeroy, L.A. No. 419, Supreme Court of California, 124 Cal. 597, 3 June 1899. http://www.lexisnexis.com.libproxy.csun. edu:2O48/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do?doc LinkInd=true&risb=2i_T6o2749oi8i&format=GNBFi&sort=BOOLEAN&startDocNo=i&resultsUrl Key=29_T6o2749oi84&cisb=22_T6o2749oi83&treeMax=true&treeWidth=o&csi=486i&LdocNo=6 (accessed 12 March 2009).
11
Bigger, 160.
12
Mulholland, William Mulholland, 182.
13
Abraham Hoffman, Vision or Villainy: Origins of the Owens Valley-Los Angeles Water Controversy (Col- lege Station: Texas a&m up, 1981), 150.
14
Norris Hundley, Jr., The Great Thirst: Californians and Water, 1770S-1990S (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1992), 159-60.
15
"Magnificent Chorus of Voters Shouts for Owens River Project," Los Angeles Times, 8 September 1905, sec. 2, p. 1.
17
"Owens River Bonds Carried by Overwhelming Majority," Los Angeles Times, 13 June 1907, sec. 2, p. 1.
18
Frank K. Keffer, History of San Fernando Valley (Glendale, CA: Stillman Printing Company, 1934), 75.
19
"Heads List of Water Buyers," Los Angeles Times, 23 April 1913, sec. 2, p. 1.
20
"Would Dam Big Teiunga." Los Angeles Times, 23 July 1995, sec. 2, p. 6.
21
Mulholland, 149, and Kevin Starr, Material Dreams: Southern California Through the 1920s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), 56.
22
"Knock A Boost To Annexation," Los Angeles Times, 1 April 1915, sec. 2, p. 1.
23
C. S. Wilson, letter to the editor, Los Angeles Times, 4 May 1915, sec. 2, p. 5.
24
"City Controls Water Prices," Los Angeles Times, 27 April 1915, sec. 2, p. 3
25
"Mulholland Once More Attacks the Highline," Los Angeles Times, 15 April 1913, sec. 1, p. 1.
26
C. S. Wilson, letter to the editor, Los Angeles Times, 4 May 1915, sec. 2, p. 5.
27
"Mulholland Ready with a Water Plan," Los Angeles Times, 16 April 1913, sec. 2, p. 1;
"Annexation Plan On," Los Angeles Times is October iqis, sec. 2, p. 12.
28
"Immense Flow of Owens River Water Ready for Los Angeles and the Territory That's to Become Part of Great City," Los Angeles Times, 14 December 1913, sec. 6, p. 1.
29
"San Fernando Valley Proposes Annexation," Los Angeles Times, 28 August 1913, sec. 2, p. 1.
30
"Votes to Come into the City," Los Angeles Times, 21 March 1915, sec. 1, p. 8.
31
"City Adds to Itself Vast, Rich Territory," Los Angeles Times, 5 May 1915, sec. 1, p. 6.
32
"Burbank Votes to Remain Out," Los Angeles Times, 17 November 1920, sec. 2, p. 1;
"San Fernando Favors Annexation to City," Los Angeles Times, 13 January 1924, sec. D, p. 7;
"Meetings at Burbank to Boost Annexation," Los Angeles Times, 2 August 1924, sec. A, p. 6;
"Annexation Plan at San Fernando May Be Held Up," Los Angeles Times, 29 May 1931, p. 10.
33
Bigger and Kitchen, 12.
34
"Suburbs Lose Free Water," Los Angeles Times, 1 September 1926, sec. A, p. 5.
35
"Water Fight Order Issued," Los Angeles Times, 18 August 1933, sec. A, p. 1.
36
"San Fernando Valley Water Rights Claimed by City Upheld, Los Angeles Times, 15 October, 1943, p. A.
37
"City Seeks Curb on Water Use," Los Angeles Times, 1 October 1955, sec. A, p. 1.
38
Los Angeles v. San Fernando, L.A. No. 30119, Supreme Court of California, 14 Cal. 3d 199, 30 July 1975. http://www.lexisnexis.com.libproxy.csun.edu:2O48/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do?docLink Ind=true&risb=2i_T59i5io9O75&format=GNBFi&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=i&resultsUrlKey=29_ T59i5io9O79&cisb=22_T59i5io9O77&treeMax=true&treeWidth=o&csi=486i&docNo=i (accessed 5 March 2009).
39
James Quinn, "Water Rates to Rise in Burbank, Glendale," Los Angeles Times 18 May 1975, edition gb, p. 1.
40
Marc Reisner, Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water (New York: Viking, 1986);
Mulholland; Hundley. For sta- tistical evidence of Los Angeles' early dominance, see San Diego County Water Authority, "1946 Annual Report," available from http://www.sdcwa.org/about/pdf/ar_1946/o6_mwd.pdf (accessed 25 March 2009).
41
Daily News: Valley Generations of the 20th Century, 31 December 1999, Box 26,
42
Tom Hogen-Esch, "Elite and Electoral Coalitions: Lessons from the Secession Campaign in Los Angeles," California Politics & Policy 8.1 (2004): 24.
Tom Hogen-Esch and Martin Saiz, "An Anatomy of Defeat: Why San Fernando Valley Failed to Secede From Los Angeles," in California Policy Issues Annual (Los Angeles: Pat Brown Institute of Public Affairs, California State University, Northridge, 2003) vol. 4, 39-66.
43
Miguel Bustillo and Patrick McGreevy, "L.A. Offers Formal Secession Response," Los Angeles Times, 1 July 1999, Home Edition, p. 3.
44
Xandra Kayden, "The State," Los Angeles Times, 23 November 1997, Home Edition, p. 6.
45
Leon Furgatch, letter to the editor, Los Angeles Times, 6 December 1998, Home Edition, p. 6.
46
Jim Newton, Water Rights Could Sink Valley Secession, Los Angeles Times, 24 April 1998, Home Edi- tion, p. 1.
47
Jim Newton and Miguel Bustillo, "Valley's Bills Will Rise if It Secedes, dwp Chief Says, Los Angeles Times, 4 March 1999, Home Edition, p. 1.
48
Valley vote letter to Councilman Mike Hernandez, 3 June 1998, Box 10, Legal Issues: Water Rights, Valley vote collection.
49
Los Angeles City Attorney's Office correspondence to the mayor's office, 3 February 1999, Box 10, Legal Issues: Water Rights, Valley vote collection.
50
"Questions and Answers Concerning Valley Cityhood Flyer," 1998, Box 8, Valley vote collection.
51
"Speaking to Organizations and the Press," 18 March 2002, Box 14, Valley vote Major Issues, Valley vote collection.
52
"The Odds on Secession," Daily News, 3 November 2002, Viewpoint Section, p. 2; "Valley Must Pay Same dwp Bills," Daily News, 27 October 2002, Special Section, 4.
53
Hogen-Esch, 27.
54
"lafco Initial Study: Special Reorganization of the San Fernando Valley Area, Los Angeles County, California," 28 March 2001, p. 2.10, Box 1, Valley vote collection.
55
"lafco, Los Angeles County; Special Reorganization of the San Fernando Valley Executive Officer's Report," Valley vote collection, 24 April 2002, Box 2, 65-66.
56
"League of Women Voters of Los Angeles, Report on Secession," Valley vote collection, 6 April 2002, Box 5, 19.
57
"Office of the County Counsel, County of Los Angeles; Report to lafco," Valley vote collection, 7 February 2002, Box 13, Issues: Public Utilities.
58
"Office of the City Attorney, City of Los Angeles; Report Re: Legal Issues Raised by the Proposal for the Secession (Special Reorganization) of the San Fernando Valley," Valley vote collection, 15 June 2001, Box 7„2б.
59
"lafco, Los Angeles County; Special Reorganization of the San Fernando Valley Executive Officer's Report," Valley vote collection, 24 April 2002, Box 2, 64-
60
"Secession," Los Angeles Times, Home Edition, 15 September 2002, sec. M, p. 3.
61
"Secession Foes Cite Utility Bills; Debate," Los Angeles Times, Home Edition, 10 October 2002, sec. B, p. 1.
62
"Office of the City Attorney, City of Los Angeles; Report Re: Legal Issues Raised by the Proposal for the Secession (Special Reorganization) of the San Fernando Valley," Valley vote collection, 15 June 2001, Box 7.
63
"lafco Applicant Requests," Valley vote collection, 15 May 2002, Box 15.
64
Los Angeles Times, 10 October 2002, sec. B, p. 1.
65
Office of the City Clerk, Los Angeles, "Election Results 2002," 18 December 2002, Lacity.org. http://parc 3.1acity.org/api/cfm/netdocs/index.cfm?&H=i66o&F=i66i&L=4747&css=i663&LSi=&.SD=&SP=&rootca t=46i&catid=652.
66
Jim Faught, "Breaking Up is Hard to Do: Explaining the 2002 San Fernando Valley Secession Vote," Jour- nal of Urban Affairs 28.4 (2006): 393;
Tom Hogen-Esch, "Elite and Electoral Coalitions: Lessons from the Secession Campaign in Los Angeles," California Politics & Policy 8.1 (2004): 19-43.
This content is only available via PDF.