In the 1960s and 1970s, Native American and Chicano activists launched attacks against the romanticized depiction of the Spanish Past that was taught in California schools. Contests within and among the reform groups (and the eventual resolution found in today's educational standards) reveal a complex effort to shape children's perceptions of race and identity. By tracing the evolution of Native American and Latino activism on this subject and the responses of the state Board of Education, this article shows the symbolic significance of education debates in state politics.


Linda Lyngheim, California Junior Heritage Series: California Mission Projects & Activities (Chatsworth, CA: Langtry Publications, 1993), 31.
Erik Wessler, interview with the author, October 25, 2006;
Mrs. Kyneur to Fourth Grade Parents, Decem- ber 2006.
Berkeley Hall School, N to 6th Grade Assignments, homework_1to6.html (accessed January 15, 2007).
Carey McWilliams, Southern California Country (New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1946), 70;
McWil- liams, Southern California: An Island on the Land (Santa Barbara, CA: Peregrine Smith, 1973), 21-22;
Phoebe Kropp, California Vieja: Culture and Memory in a Modern American Place (Berkeley and Los Ange- les: University of California Press, 2006);
William Deverell, Whitewashed Adobe: The Rise of Los Angeles and the Remaking of its Mexican Past (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004).
Julian Nava and Bob Barger, California: Five Centuries of Cultural Contrasts (Beverly Hills, CA: Glencoe Press, 1976).
Frances FitzGerald, America Revised: History Schoolbooks in the Twentieth Century (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), 76;
Phoebe S. Kropp, "Sugar Cube Missions: Bringing the Spanish Past into the California Class- room," paper presented at the 94th Organization of American Historians Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, April 2001;
John O. Pohlmann, "California's Mission Myth," (PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1974).
Kropp, "Sugar Cube Missions," 3-7.
Pohlmann, "California's Mission Myth," 507-12;
David Lavender and the editors of American Heritage, The Story of California (New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1970);
John and LaRee Caughey, California's Own History (Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1965).
Maxwell L. Rafferty, "What's Happened to Patriotism?" The Reader's Digest (October 1961), 108-10.
FitzGerald, America Revised, 149-218.
Lawrence T. King, Californias Fourth R,"" The Commonweal (December 14, 1962), 306;
Oene Marine, "New Hope of the Far Right," The Nation (January 27, 1964), 89;
Lisa McGirr, Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 6.
"Rafferty's Disavowal in the Textbook Case," San Francisco Chronicle, May 17, 1966, Rupert Costo Archive of the American Indian, Department of Special Collections, University of California, Riverside (ucr), Box 104.
McGirr, 203-204.
Costo Library of the American Indian, http://www.amer library/index.html (accessed February 26, 2007);
"Minutes of the American Indian Historical Society Board Meeting," July 14, 1964, Costo Archive, ucr (Box 12, Folder 9.1);
Cheryl A. Metoyer-Duran, "Col- lection Overview: The Rupert Costo Archive of the American Indian," December 17, 2002, vi-xi, http:// (accessed February 27, 2007).
Rupert Costo, "Indians & Books," The Indian Historian 2.8 (October 1965): 3;
"Indians to Lead in Study," The Indian Historian 2.5 (May-June 1965): 2.
The Indian Historian 2.7 (August-September 1965).
Costo, "Program for Cor- rection" in The American Indian Reader: Education, ed. Jeanette Henry (San Francisco: The Indian Histo- rian Press, Inc., 1972), 150-51;
Mark Harris, "Gadfly on the Rump of Education," The Atlantic (December 1967), 96.
Jeanette Henry, "Our Inaccurate Textbooks," The Indian Historian 1.1 (December 1967): 23-24.
Rupert Costo to Dr. Max Rafferty, January 24, 1066, Costo Archive» ucr (Box 104, Folder 1.1).
Herman Schein to Dr. Samuel С McCulloch, February 18, 1966, Costo Archive, ucr (Box 104, Folder 1.1).
Helen Bauer, California Indian Days (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1968).
Ellsworth Chunn to Rupert Costo, February 16, 1966;
Executive Council, American Indian Historical Society, to Dr. Samuel C. McCulloch, February 17, 1966;
Thomas G. Aylesworth to Rupert Costo, July 25, 1969.
Costo Archive, ucr (Box 104, Folder 1.1).
Rupert Costo to Thomas G. Aylesworth, August 4, i960, Costo Archive, ucr (Box 104, Folder 1.1).
"Objections to the Fourth Grade Textbook The Story of California bv David Lavender," n.d.. Costo Archive, ucr (Box 42. Folder 7.1).
Martina Costo, "An Example of Teacher Aid: To Learn About Indian Life and How It Influenced the Development of Early California," The Indian Historian 2.7 (August-September 196s): 1-6.
"It Happened in California: You Are There," n.d., Costo Archive, ucr (Box 31, Folder ил).
Rodolfo Acuña, Occupied America: The Chicano1 s Struggle Toward Liberation (San Francisco: Canfield Press, 1972), 17.
Ted Thackrey, Jr., and Judith A. Michaelson, "Alabama Car Crash Kills Max Rafferty," Los Angeles Times, June 14, 1982, Bi;
David G. Savage, "Max Rafferty Returns to Battle Riles," Los Angeles Times, May 22, 1982, 22.
FitzGerald, America Revised, 39.
Gertrude S. Brown with the advice of Dr. Manuel Guerra, Our Mexican Heritage (Lexington, MA: Ginn, 1972), 31, 89-92, 124.
Miriam Williford and Polly Timberlake, "Latin American Studies in the Schools: A Review of Materi- als," Latin American Research Review, ил (1976): 234;
Critical Review oí California-Our State Today in "Textbooks in the Pilot Survey," The Indian Historian 2.7 (August-September 1965);
Jeanette Henry, "Our Inaccurate Textbooks," The Indian Historian 1.1 (December 1967): 23-24.
Rudolph Acuña, The Story of the Mexican Americans: The Men and the Land (New York: American Book Co., 1969), 36, 24, 129.
34 department.html (accessed September 14, 2009).
Rudy Acuña, Cultures in Conflict: Problems of the Mexican Americans (New York: Charter School Books, 1970), 17.
Juan J. Inda, "La Comunidad en Lucha: The Development of the East Los Angeles High School Blowouts." Paper presented at the 29th Stanford Center for Chicano Research Working Papers Series, Stanford, CA, March 1990, 15.
Acuña, Occupied America, 249; Inda, 3;
Acuña, Occupied America, 247-48.
Kay Gurule, "Truthful Textbooks and Mexican Americans," Integrated Education (March-April 1973), 42.
Gurule, "Truthful Textbooks and Mexican Americans," 38-39.
Joseph C. Ortega, Raquel Gutiérrez, et al. v. State Board of Education 1972, 3, 9, Costo Archive, ucr (Box 42, Folder 5.2).
Memorandum to School Textbook Lawsuit Participants from Joseph С Ortega, April 12, 1972;
Urtega, Gutierrez, et al. v. State Board of Education, 5. Both sources in Costo Archive, ucr (Box 42, Folders 5.6, 5-2).
Ortega, Gutierrez, et al. v. State Board of Education 1972, deposition, 3-4;
'Statement to State Board of Education by Jack Forbes," January 4, 1972.
Both sources in Costo Archive, ucr (Box 42, Folder 5.2).
Gurule, "Truthful Textbooks and Mexican Americans, 42;
Julian Nava, Educational Challenges in Elementary and Secondary Schools" in Mexican-Americans Tomorrow: Educational and Economic Per- spectives, ed. Gus Tyler (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, published in cooperation with the Weatherhead Foundation, 1975), 131.
Standard 4.2 in "California: A Changing State," History-Social Science Content Standards for Califor- nia Public Schools, Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, ed. Bob Klingensmith (Sacramento: California Department of Education Press, 2000), 13.
Rueben E. Aguirre, Teaching the Chicano/Mexican American Cultural Heritage in the Elementary School: A Teacher's Guide (San Francisco: R and E Research Associates, 1978), 46-48;
Daniel F. Duran, Latino Materials: A Multimedia Guide for Children and Young Adults (Santa Barbara, CA: American Biblio- graphical Center-City Press, 1979), 74.
Dianne MacMillan, Missions of the Los Angeles Area (Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1996), 9, 38, 73.
Dolores Hendricks, et al., New Perspectives on the California Missions: A Unit of Study for 4th Grade (Los Angeles: National Center for History in the Schools, ucla, 2006), 1, 11, 24, 29.
Steven W. Hackel, Children of Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian-Spanish Relations in Colonial California, 1769-1850 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005);
James A. Sandos, Con- verting California: Indians and Franciscans in the Missions (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004).
Paul Apodaca, interview with the author, November 2, 2006.
Linda Lyngheim, California Junior Heritage Series: California Mission Projects & Activities (Chatsworth, CA: Langtry Publications, 1993)
Randall A. Reinstedt, Hands-On History Series: Tales and Treasures of California's Missions (Carmel, CA: Ghost Town Publications, 1993).
This content is only available via PDF.