Carlos Larralde depicts Josefina Fierro de Bright (1913-1998) as a colorful individual who was indispensable to the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee for her influential contacts, promotion, and fund-raising. Other scholars have accorded less prominence to Fierro and more to the late Alice McGrath (1917-2009). Larralde bases his account heavily on his notes of oral interviews with key figures, notes that are of limited accessibility to other researchers (though currently under discussion with the Huntington Library). In an Afterword, Dr. Larralde challenges the McGrath school and its sources. We hope, in publishing this article, to initiate a dialogue on the relative historiographical value of various categories of sources, (merry. ovnick@csun.edu)

Notes

Notes
1
Interview with Bert Corona, May 12, 1985;
Carey McWilliams, The Education of Carey McWilliams (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979), 78, 109, in; George J. Sanchez, Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (New York: Oxford University, 1993), 249;
Patrick McGilligan and Paul Buhle, Tender Comrades: A Biography of the Hollywood Blacklist (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997), 544-45;
Eduardo Obregon Pagan, Murder At the Sleepy Lagoon: Zoot-Suits, Race, and Riots in Wartime L.A. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), 202.
Sam Kushner, Long Road To Delano (New York: International Publishers, 1975), 70.
2
The People. . .Plaintiff and Respondent versus Gus Zammora, Defendants and Appellants, et al., Criminal No. 3719 in the District Court of Appeals: State of California, Second Appellate District, Division Two (Los Angeles: Katz, Gallagher & Margollis, Attorneys for Appellants, 1943), 17-19; Pagan, 45-66.
Dennis McLellan's obituary on Henry Ynostroza, "Wrongly Convicted in 'Sleepy Lagoon' Killing,'" Los Angeles Times, September 9, 2006.
3
Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico: The Spanish-Speaking People of the United States (New York: Greenwood Press, 1968), 229.
4
McWilliams, North From Mexico, 227, 230.
"One Man Slain; Girls Join in Youthful Gang Forays Here, Los Angeles Examiner, August 3, 1942;
"One Killed and 10 Hurt in Boy 'Wars,'" Los Angeles Times, August 3, 1942;
"150 Rounded Up in Killing, Gang Terror," Los Angeles Examiner, August 4, 1942;
"Solution to Youthful Gang Violence Problem Sought," Los Ange- les Times, October 9, 1942.
5
Kevin Allen Leonard, The Battle for Los Angeles: Racial Ideology and World War 11 (Albuquerque: Uni- versity of New Mexico Press, 2006), 164.
McWilliams, North From Mexico, 233, 237-38.
6
McWilliams, North From Mexico, 231.
7
Ibid.
8
Interview with Ben Margolis, October 12, 1979;
interview with John McTernan, October 12, 1979;
inter- view with Bert Corona, October 12, 1979.
9
Josefina Fierro and her husband, John Bright, went with a friend, Henry Andre Leon, to a fund-raising garden party on July 26, 1942.
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985
Carlos Larralde and Richard Griswold del Castillo, "Luisa Moreno and the Beginnings of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement in San Diego," Journal of San Diego History (summer 1997).
10
Interview with John Bright, June 12, 1985.
Darlene Clark Hine, William С Hiñe, and Stanley Harrold, The African-American Odyssey (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000) vol. 2, 485.
11
Interview with Carey McWilliams, October 21, 1978.
Kevin Starr, Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1C40-1C50 (New York: Oxford Univer- sity Press, 2002).
14
Interview with Josefina Fierro, March 12, 1981.
Mario T. Garcia, Memories of Chicano History: The Life and Narrative of Bert Corona (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994), 176-79.
15
Interview with John Bright, June 12, 1985.
Larry Ceplair and Steven Englund, The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960 (New York: Anchor Press/Dou- bleday, 1980), 20-21, 86, 222, 225, 399, 431, 437.
16
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985.
McWilliams, North From Mexico, 229; Obituaries, "Josefina Fierro Borbas; Pioneering Latino Activist," Los Angeles Times, March 27, 1998.
18
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 120; Sanchez, 246-47.
19
Interview with Josefina Fierro, March 12, 1981.
20
Ibid.
21
Interview with Blanche Corona, March 17, 1982.
Doug Smith, "Blanche Corona; Organized Labor Campaigns," Los Angeles Times, August 13, 1993.
22
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 121.
"Sproul Will Dismiss ucla Pianist if Found to be Red," Los Angeles Times, March 28, 1950; "Accused Pianist To Fight For Job," Los Angeles Times, March 30, 1950.
23
Interview with Josefina Fierro, March 12, 1981.
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 121.
24
Corona's comments about how Josefina dressed in Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 121, 122; interview with Blanche Corona, March 17, 1982.
25
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 16, 1985.
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 114.
Carey McWilliams, Zři Fares the Land: Migrants and Migratory Labor in the United States (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1942);
James Gray, The American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California and Imperial Valley Agricultural Labor Disturbance: 1930 (San Francisco: R & E Research Associates, 1977).
26
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985.
27
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 114.
28
Arthur H. Samish and Bob Thomas, The Secret Boss of California: The Life and High Times of Art Samish (New York: Crown Publishers, 1971), 34.
"Tenney Secretary Cavorts in Red Shorts to Pay Bet," Los Angeles Daily News, April 28, 1949.
29
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985;
Carey McWilliams, The Education of Carey McWilliams, 146-47;
Kevin Starr, Endangered Dreams: The Great Depression in California (New York: Oxford University, 1996), 213-14.
30
Interview with Blanche Corona, March 17, 1982.
Mario T. Garcia, Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ide- ology, & Identity, 1930-1960 (New Haven, CT: Yale University, 1989), 155-56;
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 120, 156.
John Bright by McGilligan and Buhle, 128-254.
John Bright, "Las Mañanitas: A New Awaking for the Mexicans in the United States," Black & White, June 1939, 14.
John Bright, "Disney's Fantasy Empire," 136-46, in Carey McWilliams, ed., The California Revolution (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1968), 136-46.
31
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985.
32
Interview with John Bright, June 12, 1985.
33
Interview with Blanche Corona, March 17, 1982;
interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985; see Gar- cia, Memories of Chicano History, 121.
Garcia, Mexican Americans, 158-59.
Ted Sennett, Laughing in the Dark: Movie Comedy from Groucho to Woody (New York: St. Partin's Press, 1992), 20.
34
Interview with Luisa Moreno, April 17, 197 1.
Pagan, 205.
Daniel Hurewitz, Bohemian Los Angeles: The Making of Modern Politics (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California, 2007).
35
Sandra Lee Stuart, The Pink Palace: Behind Closed Doors at the Beverly Hills Hotel (Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart, Inc., 1978), comments on the liquor shortage, 75-78, and rationing, 74-75.
Sandra Lee Stuart and John Prince, The Pink Palace Revisited: Behind Closed Doors at the Beverly Hills Hotel (Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books, Inc., 1993), 67.
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985,
Interview with Carey McWilliams, June 12, 1979.
36
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985;
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 121; Report Joint Fact- Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California, 1945 (Sacramento, CA: Report of the Joint Fact-Finding Committee to the Fifty-Sixth California Legislature, 1945), 193; Pagan, 85-86.
37
Interview with Ben Margolis, summer 1984.
38
Interview with Carey McWilliams, March 12, 1978.
39
Interview with Blanche Corona, March 17, 1982.
40
Interview with John McTernan, April 12, 1987.
41
Interview with Blanche Corona, March 17, 1982.
42
Interview with John McTernan, April 12, 1987.
43
Interview with Carey McWilliams, March 12, 1978.
44
Ibid., June 12, 1979.
45
Guy Endore, The Sleepy Lagoon Mystery (Los Angeles: Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee, 1944); quota- tion from Pagan, 201-202.
46
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985;
Edward J. Escobar, Race, Police, and the Making of a Political Identity: Mexican Americans and the Los Angeles Police Department, 1900-1945 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California, 1999), 274.
47
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985.
Betty Lasky, rko: The Biggest Little Major Of Them All (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1984), 180.
Report Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California, 1945, 195.
Charles Winecoff, Split Image: The Life of Anthony Perkins (New York: A Dutton Book, 1996), 241-42;
Pagan, 201, The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee Papers, ucla, Box 4, File 2, "San Quentin Letters."
48
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 16, 1985.
49
Report Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California, 1943, 206-207.
50
"U.S. At War," Time, June 21, 1943;
"City, Navy Clamp Lid on Zoot-Suit Warfare," Los Angeles Times, June 9, 1943;
Carey McWilliams, North from Mexico, 228-30;
Carey McWilliams, "Los Angeles Pachuco Gangs," New Republic, January 18, 1943, 76-77.
51
Carey McWilliams, "Zoot Suit Riots," New Republic, June 21, 1943, 818-20;
McGilligan and Buhle, 545. The Los Angeles Times finally grew in its journalistic scope and reputation when publisher Otis Chandler changed the paper in the 1970s.
52
Report Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California, 1943, 203.
53
Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico, 255.
54
Pagan, 185, 187.
55
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985; Jones, 70-74.
56
"28 Zoot-Suiters Seized on Coast After Clashes With Service Men," New York Times, June 7, 1943;
"City, Navy Clamp Lid on Zoot-Suit Warfare," Los Angeles Times, June 9, 1943;
"Not A Race Issue, Mayor Says," New York Times, June 10, 1943; Pagan, 170-72.
57
Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico, 237-38.
58
Report Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California, 1945, 182, 193-95.
59
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 14, 1985;
interview with Bert Corona, May 12, 1998.
Otto Friedrich, City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the 1940 s (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1986), 144;
McWilliams, North from Mexico, 256-57.
Frank P. Barajas, "The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944," Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies (Spring 2006): 45.
60
Richard Griswold del Castillo, "The Los Angeles Zoot-Suit Riots: Latin America Responds," in Gordon Morris Bakken, ed., California History: A Topical Approach (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 2003), 177-78.
Mexican newspaper coverage, see Pagan, 193-94;
Stuart Cosgrove, "The Zoot Suit and Style Warfare," History Workshop Journal (Autumn 1984): 77-91.
61
Orson Welles and Marion Bachrach, The Sleepy Lagoon Case (Los Angeles: Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee, 1944).
62
Interview with Carey McWilliams, June 12, 1979;
Guy Endore, The Sleepy Lagoon Mystery (Los Angeles: Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee, 1944); Pagan, 201-202.
63
Cecilia Rasmussen, LA Unconventional: The Men and Women who did LA their Way (Los Angeles: Los Angeles Times, 1998), 109;
Douglas Flamming, Bound for Freedom: Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow Amer- ica (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California, 2005), 194;
Robert Gottlieb, Regina Freer, Mark Vallianatos, and Peter Dreier, The Next Los Angeles: The Struggle for a Livable City (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California, 2006), 17.
Robert Shuler was an associate of John C. Porter, the mayor of Los Angeles (1929-1933),
Tom Sitton, John Randolph Haynes: California Progressive (Stanford, С A: Stan' ford University Press, 1992), 219-20.
Interview with the musician Dorothy Bembridge, December 12, 1998.
John L. Mitchell, "Man Charged in Slaying at Historical Home," Los Angeles Times, April 18, 2001.
64
Interview with Luisa Moreno, April 17, 1971;
interview with Robert W. Kenny, June 12, 1972.
65
Interview with Carey McWilliams, June 12, 1979;
Klan activities in Los Angeles, see Leon- ard, 19-21; 270-77.
Carlos Larralde and Richard Griswold del Castillo, "The San Diego Ku Klux Klan, I92o's-i98o's," Journal of San Diego History (Summer 2000).
66
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985.
Margaret James to Robert Kenney, August 9, 1946, File of Robert Kenny-Robert Morris Papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison; "Ku Kluxers Still Active Here, Justice Department Man Says," Westwood Hills Press, October 18, 1946.
Westwood Hills Press, November 4, 1947;
Crenshaw Mirror, November 4, 1947;
B'nai B'rith Messenger, November 7, 1947;
The California Jewish Vice, November 7, 1947
Robert Kenny's "Stop Operation Witch Hunt!" conference in the Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, to meet on November 9, 1947, to fight McCarthyism.
67
"Mayor Bowron is Exposed as Gerald L. K. Smith's Pal," State Labor News, October 14, 1946.
68
Report Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California, 1943, 275, 280, 281.
69
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 14, 1985.
Martha Menchaca, The Mexican Outsiders: A Community History ofMarginalization and Discrimination in California (Austin: University of Texas, 1995), 31-58;
Klan in Pomona, see Matt Garcia, A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 75-77, 91-92.
70
Interview with Carey McWilliams, June 12, 1979;
State-Wide Legis- lative Conference, Los Angeles, August 23-24, 1947: "Speech for Robert W. Kenny"; Carey McWilliams, "What's Back of it AH?";
William R. Bidner, "Program for Action." Ku Klux Klan files, Box 2, File 7, author's collection.
71
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 14, 1985.
Josefina helped to compose the pamphlet, 5th Column in Mexico (New York: The Council for Pan American Democracy, 1942);
Ignacio L. Lopez, see Matt Garcia, A World of Its Own, 228-42. "Sinarquismo in the United States," New Republic, July 26, 1944, 97-
72
Interview with Bert Corona, May 12, 1985;
interview with Josefina Fierro, June 14, 1985;
Garcia, Mexican Americans, 169-70.
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 1 15-16.
David J. Williams, "Sinarquismo in Mexico and the Southwest" (master's thesis, Texas Christian University, 1950), 122-49.
73
Barajas, 45.
74
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 16, 1985.
Report Joint Fact-Finding Com- mittee on Un-American Activities in California, IQ45 (Sacramento, CA: Report of the Joint Fact-Finding Committee to the Fifty-Sixth California Legislature, 1945), 183, 184;
Lindley Bynum and Idwal Jones, Biscailuz: Sheriff of the New West (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1950), 150-53;
Jones, "The Government Riots of Los Angeles, June, 1943," 69, 135-36.
McWilliams, North from Mexico, 233-35, 236-38.
75
McWilliams, The Education of Carey McWilliams, 113, 114;
interview with Carey McWilliams, June 12, 1979;
Carol Dunlap, California People (Salt Lake City, UT: Peregrine Smith Books), 33, 34.
76
Hine, Hine, and Harrold, The African-American Odyssey, vol. 2, 435-37.
77
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 16, 1985.
Report Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California 1945, 140, 184.
Carey McWilliams, "Mr. Tenney's Horrible Awakening," The Nation, July 23, 1949, 80-82.
"Sen. Tenney: Action on Alleged Reds Rests with D.A.," Los Angeles Evening Herald Express, July 28, 1950.
"Communism in L.A.: How It Works," Los Angeles Mirror, August 28, 1950;
"Council Orders 'Red List' Law," Los Angeles Mirror, August 29, 1950;
"City Council Tie Vote on 'Red Registry' Law," Los Angeles Evening Herald Express, August 29, 1950;
"Police Commission Studies Red Registration Ruling," Los Angeles Daily News, August 30, 1950;
"Red Sign-Up Measure Stirs Row in Council," Los Angeies Times, August 30, 1950.
People's World Magazine, January 4, 1952.
Dorothy Healey and Maurice Isser- man, Dorothy Healey Remembers: A Life in the American Communist Party (New York: Oxford University, 1990), 85-87, 91.
78
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 11, 1985.
interview with Bert Corona, May 12, 1998.
Samantha Barbas, The First Lady of Hollywood: A Biography of Louella Parsons (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Cali- fornia, 2005), 301-307;
McWilliams, The Education of Carey McWilliams, 138.
Norman Thomas, "Reds Using Trial for Propaganda," Los Angeles Mirror, March 1, 1949,
Gene Jimenez, "Trotskyist Youth in L.A.," The Militant, July 28, 1945.
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 118.
79
Escobar, 278;
Lázaro Cardenas to Carey McWilliams, reprinted in a Sleepy Lagoon press release, August 2i, 1944,
80
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 16, 1985.
McWilliams, North from Mexico, 232.
Report Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities in California, 1945, 195.
81
Pagan, 205-206.
82
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 18, 1985;
Los Angeles Times, October 23-25, 1944, in McWilliams, North from Mexico, 231.
83
Vicente Peralta to the Sleepy Lagoon group, reprinted in a Sleepy Lagoon press release, July 27, 1943, Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee Papers, Reel 1, ucla.
84
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 16, 1985.
Vicente Peralta to the Sleepy Lagoon group, reprinted in a Sleepy Lagoon press release, July 27, 1943, Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee Papers, Reel 1, ucla.
"Aid to Sleepy Lagoon Boys: Mexican Consul Lauds 'Good Neighbor' Work," 1944, in S. Guy Endore Papers, Box 83, Fi, Special Collections, UCLA.
85
Interview with Carey McWilliams, March 12, 1978.
86
Interview with Ben Margolis, summer 1984.
87
Interview with Bert Corona, November 4, 1999.
88
Interview with Carey McWilliams, June 12, 1979.
89
Pagan, 208;
interview with Carey McWilliams, June 12, 1979.
Carey McWilliams, I he Education of Carey McWilliams, in.
90
On Frank Tuttle, see, "Director Tuttle Names 36 Former Fellow Reds, Los Angeles Times, May 25, 1951.
91
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 16, 1985.
Herb Caen and Yavno, The San Francisco Book (Bos- ton: Houghton Mifflin, Co., 1048), 101.
92
"Josefina Fierro Borboa: Pioneering Latino Activist," Los Angeles Times, March 27, 1998.
93
Interview with Carey McWilliams, March 12, 1978.
94
"Film Writer Defines Red Death Threats," Los Angeles Times, September 19, 1951;
"Film Writer Names 152 in Red Probe," Los Angeles Times, September 20, 1951.
Charles Glenn, "The Song Goes on a Film Inquisition," People's World, September 20, 1951;
"Trio in Red Quiz to Speak," Los Angeles Daily News, December 3, 1951;
"Movie Ex-Red Confesses All," Los Angeles Mirror, December 6, 1951.
95
McWilliams, The Education of Carey McWilliams (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978), 173-92.
96
"Denied Facing Deportation Old Man Ends Life," California Eagle, April 7, 1949;
"Kills Self in Deportation Fear," Los Angeies Daily News, April 7, 1949;
"The Fate of Ozeran," Los Angeies Citizen News, April 28, 1949;
"Deportation Delirium Hits Again," Los Angeies Labor Herald, May 17, 1949;
interview with Carey McWilliams, June 12, 1979.
97
McGilligan and Buhle, 129.
C. Gerald Fraser, "John Bright, 81, a Screen Writer," New York Times, September 16, 1989, obituaries;
"John Bright, 81, Screenwriter," Los Angeles Times, September 28, 1989, obituaries;
"John Bright: Wise-Cracking Scripts for James Cagney," The London Times, September 30, 1989, obituaries.
98
Interview with Soledad Chole Alatorre, October 10, 2002;
Josefina Fierro Borbas; Pioneering Latina Activist," Los Angeles Times, March 27, 1998.
99
McWilliams, The Education of Carey McWilliams, 109-12;
interview with Josefina Fierro, June 12, 1985; interview with Bert Corona, May 12, 1985.
100
Escobar, 273.
101
Interview with Josefina Fierro, June 18, 1985;
interview with Bert Corona, June 18, 1985.
102
Alice McGrath, "A Voice for Those Without," University of Washington Perspectives (Autumn 2003).
Pagan, Murder at the Sleepy Lagoon, 200,
103
"Alice McGrath, 191 7-2009;
Activist Backed Defendants in 1942 Sleepy Lagoon Trial," Los Angeles Times, November 29, 2009.
104
Interview with Ben Margolis, January 12, 1991.
105
Mark Day. Forty Acres: Cesar Chavez and the Farm Workers. (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971).
106
Pagan, Murder at the Sleepy Lagoon, 200 and note 84, p. 275.
107
Letter from Eduardo Pagan to Carlos Larralde, April 23, 2007.
108
Carlos Larralde and Richard Griswold del Castillo, "Luisa Moreno and the Beginnings of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement in San Diego," Journal of San Diego History (Summer 1997)
Zaragosa Vargas, Labor Rights Are Civil Rights: Mexican American Workers in 20th~Century America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), 181-82, 193, 273.
109
Mario Garcia, Memories of Chicano History, 115;
Barajas, "The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon, "Aztlan (Spring 2006), 42.
Zaragosa Vargas, Labor Rights Are Civil Rights: Mexican American Workers in Twentieth-Century America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 181, 193, 201-202,
110
Yolanda Broyles-Gonzales, El Teatro Campesino Theater in the Chicano Movement. (Austin: University of Texas, 1994), 181, 201-202.
111
Barajas, "The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon," 36, 53-56; quotation, p. 56.
112
Interview with Mark Day, October 12, 2007.
113
Interview with Richard Griswold del Castillo, March 12, 2004.
114
Garcia, Memories of Chicano History: The Life and Narrative of Bert Corona. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994).
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