Boosters promoted Pasadena, drawing an influx of wealthy winterers, middle-class midwesterners, and multi-ethnic communities. In the 1900-1910 period, these Pasadenans self-consciously sought to create cultural institutions and encourage high-mindedness. The arts, sciences, intellectual pursuits, and fine architecture flourished, along with the gardens and other tourist attractions, establishing Pasadena as a refined community. The institutions, culture, identity, and outlook of modern Pasadena were formed in the 1900-1910 period.

Notes

Notes
1
Ann Scheid Lund, Historic Pasadena: An Illustrated History (San Antonio, TX: Historical Publishing Net- work, 1999), 17-21.
2
United States Census Bureau, June 1, 1900, and April 15, 1910.
3
Lund, Historic Pasadena, 104.
Michelle Zack, Altadena: Between Wilderness and City (Altadena, CA: Altadena Historical Society, 2004), 118-10.
5
Jane Apoštol, "From Salon to Soap-Box: Kate Crane Gartz, Parlor Provocateur," Southern California Quarterly 80 (Winter 2007-2008): 373-00.
6
Lund, Historic Pasadena, 48, 54-56.
Helen Wright, Explorer of the Universe (New York: American Institute of Physics, 1994).
7
chapter on him in Robert Winter, ed., Toward a Simpter Way of Life: The Arts and Crafts Architects of California (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1997), 111-22.
9
Scherer, "The Throop Idea," The Arroyo Craftsman 1 (October 1909): 30.
10
Coleman: Musicmaker (Los Angeles: Balcony Press, 2000).
11
Harry L. Dunn, The Twilight Club of Pasadena, 75th Anniversary booklet, 1970, 6.
12
Robert G. Cleland presented a short history of the club, "Twilight Cavalcades, 1895-1945," on Octo- ber 16, 1945.
13
Lund, Historic Pasadena, 42.
14
Western Golfer (November 1899).
15
Hotel Maryland Life, VII (November 7, 1909),
16
Casa Grande-Spalding Hotel, Doings (November 25, 1905).
17
Peter E. Palmquist, An Idaho Photographer in Focus, "Women Photographers and the American Indian (Pocatello: Idaho State University Press, 1993), 121-49.
18
Ira Jacknis, "A New thing?" in Amy Lonetree and Amanda J. Cobb, eds., The National Museum of the Amer- ican Indian: Cultural Conversations (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008), 9.
19
Batchelder Tilemaker (Los Angeles: Balcony Press, 1999), 20-21.
20
Lund, Historic Pasadena, 43-44.
22
Edward Bosley, Greene and Greene (London: Phaidon Press Limited, 2000)
Randell S. Makinson, Greene and Greene: Architecture as a Fine Art (Salt Lake City: Gibbs M. Smith, 1971).
23
The California Bungalow (Los Angeles: Hennessey and Ingalls, 1980).
24
Lund, Historic Pasadena, 117-18.
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