A close analysis of an 1857 open letter to the Spanish-speaking press in Los Angeles by Ángel Mora, a departing Salvadoran miner, provides hints to the opportunities that drew Central Americans to the California gold rush, as well as the personal and historical reasons for their disillusion and departure. It also illuminates Central Americans' national identity, their sense of community with Hispanics from other countries, and their response to events in their homelands.

Notes

Notes
1
"Bida de un Joben de Sentro America" (letter to the editor from Angel Mora), El Clamor Público (3:5), 1 August 1857, p. 2.
2
"Comunicado" EÍ Clamor Público (1:46), 10 May 1856, p.3.
3
EÍ Clamor Público (1:34), 16 February, 1856, p.2.
4
David E. Hayes-Bautista et al, "Empowerment, expansion and engagement: Las Juntas Paváóúcas in Cali- fornia. 1848-1860" California History 85:i (2007): 4-23.
7
Michael Weiss, "Education, Literacy and the Community of Los Angeles in 1850," Southern California Quar- terly 60 (1078): 117-42.
13
"Se Vende un Molino!" EÍ Clamor РиЫко (5:23), 3 December 1859, P. 2·
14
United States Bureau of the Census. Tuolumne County, 1850. National Archives Publication 432, microfilm roll 36 (Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, 1964), family no. 143.
15
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Central America, vol. 3: 1801-1887. Vol. 8 of The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft (San Francisco: The History Company, Publishers, 1887), 53-54;
Hector Perez Brignoli, A Brief History of Central America, trans. Ricardo В. Sawrey and Susana Stettri de Sawrey (Berkeley and Los Ange- les: University of California Press, 1989), 66-67;
Mario Rodriguez, Central America (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1065), 61-62.
16
Carolyn Hall and Hector Perez Brignoli, Historical Atlas of Central America (Norman: University of Okla- homa Press, 2003), 40-41;
Perez Brignoli, Brief History of Central America, 67.
17
Bancroft, History of Central America, 119-20, 168-169;
Hall and Perez Brignoli, 172-75.
18
Bancroft, History of Central America, 179;
Perez Brignoli, Brief History of Central America, 71.
19
Hall and Perez Brignoli, 175;
Bancroft, History of Central America, 134, 138.
20
"Centro America," El Clamor Público (3:24), 12 December 1857, p. 3;
"El Dr. Scherzer" and "America Central," El Clamor Publico (5:19), 5 November 1859, p. 2.
22
William Heath Davis, Seventy-five Years in California, ed. Harold A. Small (San Francisco: John Howell Books, 1967), 76-83, 1 16-2 1, contains observations on Pacific trade networks prior to 1849.
23
Enrique Bunster, Chilenos en California. Miniaturas históricas, 3rd ed. (Santiago de Chile: Editorial del Pací- fico, 1965), 83-85; Davis, 238.
Kelly J. Sisson, "Bound for California: Chilean Contract Labor- ers and Patrones in the California Gold Rush, 1848-1852," Southern California Quarterly 90 (Fall 2008): 259-305·
24
Justo Veytia, Viaje a la Alta California, 1849-1850, ed. Salvador Veytia y Veytia (Guadala- .
25
Alan Probert "Bartolomé de Medina: the patio process and the 16th century silver crisis: Journal of the West, 8, no. 1 (January 1969).
26
Milton Lanyon and Laurence Bulmore, Cinnabar Hiüs: The Quicksilver Days of New Almaden (Los Gatos, CA: Village Printers, 1967), 11-12.
27
David J. St. Clair, "California quicksilver in the Pacific Rim economy, 1850-1890," in Sally M. Miller, A. J. H. Latham, and Dennis Owen Flynn, eds., Studies in the Economic History of the Pacific Rim (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 210-33.
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, Vol VU 1860-1890 (San Francisco: The History Publishing Com- pany, 1890), 116.
28
Ibid., 1-8.
30
"Aviso hispano-americanos," Alta California (1:35), 30 August 1849, p. 2.
31
Richard L. Nostrand, "Mexican Americans Circa 1850," Annah of the Association of American Geographers 65 (WS): 383·
34
Lanyon and Bulmore, 58.
35
"El Periodismo en California," El Clamor Público (1:35), 23 February 1856, p. 1,
El Eco del Pacífico (8: 342)
36
"Hospitalidad California," El Clamor Público (1:14), 18 September 1855, p. 1,
San Francisco La Crónica of an unknown date; "Emigracion a Sonora," El Clamor Público (1:34), 16 February 1856, p. 1,
"Una Hermosa ley de Vagos," El Cfornar Público (1:35), 19 April 1856, p. 2;
El Clamar Público (1:43), 19 April 1856, p. 2.
37
Albert Camarillo, Chi- canos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern Call· fomia, 1848-1930 (Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1996), 187-90;
Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking Calif ornions, 1 846-1 890 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994), 52-53, 67-68.
38
La Voz de Mejico (1:82), 9 October 1862, p. 2.
39
"educar" in Joan Corominas and José A. Pascual, Diccionano crítico etimológico castelhno e hispânico, 6 vols. Biblioteca Românica Hispânica, ser. 5, Diccionarios, 7 (Madrid: Editorial Gredos, 1996).
40
Carmen de Novoa, Historia de la educación general y de El Salvador (San Salvador: n.p., 1967), ch. 12, 18-22.
41
Hubert Howe Bancroft's California Pastoral, volume 34 of The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, rpt. ed. Elibron Classics (San Francisco: History Company, 1888;
Adamant Media Cor- poration, 2005), pt. 2, 496,
42
Bancroft, California Pastoral, pt. 2, table on 496.
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, rpt. ed. Elibron Classics (San Francisco: History Company, 1888; Adamant Media Corporation, 2005), vol. 7, 716-17, esp. n. 63, 717-18.
Further details may be found in "Monterey Correspondence," Alta California (1 :66), 16 March 1850, p. 2;
"La Mex- icanita" (advertisement), El Clamor Publico (2:14), 27 September 1856, p. 2;
"Discurso pronunciado por D. Santiago Lopez al tiempo de presentar a sus alumnos á un examen público en el condado de Contra Costa," El Clamor РиЫко (3:19), η November 1857, p. 2.
43
Lanyon and Bulmore, 72.
44
GAO-08-1167t, 23 September 2008, at http:// www.gao.gov/htext/do81167t.html, accessed 10 January 2009.
United States Congressional House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform's Subcommittee on Information Policy, Census, and National Archives, "2010 Census: Reducing the Undercount in the Hispanic Community Subcommittee Congressional Hearing," testimony of Lydia Camarillo, 9 July 2007, at http://informationpolicy.over sight.h0use.gov/d0cuments/20070710183512.pdf, accessed 22 January 2009, estimates that perhaps a mil- lion Latinos were not counted in the 2000 census;
Paul M. Ong and Doug Houston, "The 2000 Census Undercount in Los Angles [sic] County," Ralph & Goldy Lewis Center for Regional Policy Studies at ucla working paper no. 42, December 2002, at http://lewis.sppsr.ucla.edu/publications/workingpapers/LA CensusUndercount.pdf, accessed 22 January 2009,
45
Veytia, fols. 38r.-43r., 49V.-53V.
48
Hall and Brignoli, 185.
49
Armando V. Arava, El lado oculto del Presidente Mora (San José, Costa Rica: Editorial Juricentro, 2007), p. 45·
50
Huntington Library, Los Angeles Area Court Records Collection, Los Angeles County Probate Court, box 1, case 26,
51
Hall and Perez Brignoli, 184-85;
Robert E. May, Manifest Destiny's Underside: Filibustering in Antebellum America (Chapel Hill, NC, and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 5;
William O. Scroggs, Filibusters and Financiers. The Story of William Walker and His Associates (New York: Macmillan, 19 16), 48-49.
52
"America Central," Los Angeles Star (3:33), 31 December 1853, p. 4.
55
Nicaragua," El Clamor Publico (2:25), 13 December 1856, p. 2,
56
May, 40-42;
"Mas moléstias para Santa Anna," Los Angeles Star (3:30), 10 December 1853, p. 3 [the same article, in English, appears on p. 2
"From Lower Call· fornia," Los Angeles Star (3:33), 31 December 1853, p. 2, largely a rpt. of an article from the San Diego Her- ald, 24 December 1853;
Laurence Greene, The Filibuster: The Career of William Walker (Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1937), 30-33.
57
May, 40-42;
Greene, 38-46.
58
Greene, 46-47,
untitled editorials in (5:135), 16 May 1854, p. 2; (5:137), 18 May 1854, p. 2; (5:142), 23 May 1854, p. 2; (5:153), 3 June 1854, p. 2.
59
Greene, 46-48;
untitled article, Los Angeles Star (4:15), 24 August 1854, p. 3,
60
Untitled letter to the editor, author's name not printed (San Diego, dated 28 June 1854), Los Angeles Star (4:8), 8 July 1854, p. 3.
California's Spanish-language press was hardly alone in calling Walker and his fil- ibusters "pirates"; an article from the New York Tribune, reprinted in Spanish translation in "El Filibustero Walker," El СЫтог Fublico (3:13), 26 September 1857, p. 1,
61
"Venta de Sonora," Eí Clamor Fublico (3:41 ), 10 April 1858, p. 3,
62
Los Angeles Star (4:50), 28 April 1855, p. 3.
David E. Hayes-Bautista, La Nueva California: Latinos in the Golden State (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2004), 5-13.
63
Hall and Perez Brignoli, 184.
64
"Expedicion de Walker," El Clamor Público (1:6), 24 July 1855, p. 2.
65
"Decadência de William Walker," El Clamor Publico (2:12), 6 September 1856, p. 3;
Untitled editorial, El Clamor Publico (2:22), 22 November 1856, p. 2.
66
Untitled editorial, El Clamor РуШсо (2:22), 22 November 1856, p. 2.
67
Hall and Perez Brignoli, 185.
68
El Clamor Público ran a front-page article titled "Walker" on 18 July 1857 (3:3),
69
[Untitled], San Francisco La Voz de Méjico (2:206), 28 July 1863, p. 2.
70
Madie Brown Emparan, The vallejos of California (Sonoma, CA: Gleeson Library Associates, 1968), 368.
Uladislao's services to Juarez's envoy, General Plácido Vega, in May of 1864;
Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo to Plácido Vega, 5 May 1864, and Vega to Vallejo, 11 May 1864, Plácido Vega Papers (1855-1864),
"De la costa de Méjico," La Voz de Méjico (3:419), 13 December 1864, p. 1.
Uladislao Vallejo eventually did go back to Mexico in 1866, where he joined Juarez's Presidential Guard, returning to Cal- ifornia only in 1870;
Emparan, 367-70.
71
"The New Steamer Orizaba," Alta California (7:294), 31 October 1856, p. 2;
"Letter from Manzanillo," Alta California (9:40), 10 February 1857, p. 2;
"Nicaragua Steamship Co.'s Line" (advertisement), Alta Califor- nia (10:53). 23 Februarv 1858. p. 2.
72
Typical is the "Passengers" section in the classified advertisements of Alta California (2:176), 4 June 185 1, p. 2.
74
Jesus Mora appears as a donor in lists published in La Voz de Méjico (ι :95h 9 November 1862, p. 2; (ι : ΐο6), 4 December 1862, p. 2; and (1:118), 3 January 1863, p. 2.
R. Mora is listed as a donor in La Voz de Méjico (1:123), 15 January 1863, p. 2, and (1:139), 21 February 1863, p. 2.
Miguel Mora appears on a donor list in El Nuevo MunaO (4:285), 5 January 1566, p. 2.
Salvador Mora is cited on a donor list, in La Voz de Méjico (1:75), 23 September 1862, p. 1,
"Junta Patriótica de San Francisco," La Voz de Méjico (1:85), 16 October 1862, p. i.
La Voz de Méjico (1:40), 28 June 1862, p. 2, and (1:146), 10 March 1863, p. 2.
Los Angeles County Recorder's Office, Marriage Book 1, p. 354 (31 January 1868),
Juan Mora and Petra Bermúdez; Marriage Book 3, p. 195 (13 April 1874)
Marriage Book 62, p. 254 (10 January 1904),
Elvira and Agripina Mora; Marriage Book 85, p. 218 (15 June 1907),
Marriage Book 112, p. 54 (20 April 1909)
Lawrence Vallestro and Hortencia Mora, daughter of Miguel Mora and Ysabel Valen- cia; Marriage Book 71, p. 72 (7 August 1905),
Tomás Mora as witness to the wedding of Francisco Beltrán and Natalia Carmona; Marriage Book 85, p. 20 (22 April 1907),
Sabas Mora and his wife Ysabel as wit- nesses to the wedding of Antonio Ortuňo and Teresa Ramirez; Marriage Book 101, p. 127 (13 July 1908),
75
Hayes-Bautista, et al, "Expansion," 15, and 40-41.
76
Los Angeles County Recorder's Office, Marriage Book 3, p. 208 (1 May 1874);
Ted Gostin, personal com- munication, 5 January 2009, citing Los Angeles Plaza Church records, "Libro segundo de Matrimónios cel- ebrados," entry no. 1287.
77
La Voz de Méjko (2:293), 20 February 1864, p. 2, and (3:318), 19 April 1864, p. 2,
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