Captivity in a variety of forms frequently punctuated culture encounters in the early modern Pacific world. In few places was captivity more common than on the Northwest Coast, where a lively fur trade brought indigenous communities together with European and American traders. Between 1789 and 1792, the taking of captives and exchange of hostages was a strategy used to advantage by both native peoples and foreign ship crews. The captivity account of John Jewitt, 1803-1805, illustrates both the changing dynamics of the trade and of growing language vehicles of communication. The captivity accounts by both native and Russian chroniclers of the 1808-1810 Sv. Nikolai survivors demonstrate the complex motives and internal divisions among both elements. All of these cases draw attention to how many of the actors in the cultural contacts in the East Pacific Basin were "unfree," challenged in their status, and driven by competition in a short-lived market.

Notes

Notes
1
Kenneth N. Owens, ed., The Wreck of the Sv. Nikolai, trans. Alton S. Donnelly (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000), 44.
Kenneth N. Owens, "Frontiersman for the Tsar: Timofei Tarakanov and the Expansion of Russian Alaska," Montana 56 (Autumn 2006): 3-21.
2
Owens, The Wreck of the Sv. Nikolaif 44.
3
Owens, The Wreck of the Sv. Nikolai, 44-45.
4
Greg Dening, "Deep Times, Deep Spaces: Civilizing the Sea," in Sea Changes: Historicizing the Ocean, Bern- hard Klein and Gesa Mackenthus, eds. (New York: Routledge, 2004), 27.
5
Linda Colley, Captives: Britain, Empire, and the World, 1600-1850 (New York: Anchor Books, 2002);
June Namias, White Captives: Gender and Ethnicity on the American Frontier (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995);
John Demos, The Unredeemed Captive: A Fam- ily Story from Early America (New York: Vintage, 1995);
Daniel K. Richter, The Ordeal of the Long- house: The Peoples of the lroquis League in the Era of European Colonization (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992), 66-74.
6
John Hoskins, Narrative of the Second Voyage of the Columbia, in Frederic W. Howay, ed., Voyages of the "Columbia" to the Northwest Coast, 1787-1790 and 1790-1793 (New York: Da Capo Press, 1969), 186.
7
Hoskins, "Narrative," 185.
8
Ibid., 186-87.
9
Daniel W. Clayton, Islands of Truth: The Imperial Fashioning of Vancouver Island (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1999), 129.
10
Hoskins, "Narrative," 188.
11
David A. Chappell, Double Ghosts: Oceanian Voyagers on Euroamerican Ships (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997), 101.
12
Frederic W. Howay, "Early Relations with the Pacific Northwest," in Albert P. Taylor, ed., The Hawaiian Islands (1930), 14.
13
"Officers and Crew of the Columbia," in Howay, Voyages of the Columbia, 447.
14
Hoskins, "Narrative," 185.
15
Joseph Ingraham' s Journal of the Brigantine Hope on a Voyage to the Northwest Coast of North America, 1790-92, Mark D. Kaplanoff, ed. (Barre, MA, Imprint Society, 1971), 76.
16
Howay, "Early Relations with the Pacific Northwest," 16.
17
Frederic W. Howay, A List of Trading Vessels in the Maritime Fur Trade, 1785-1825, Richard A. Pierce, ed. (Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press, 1973).
18
Edmond S. Meany, ed. A New Vancouver Journal on the Discovery of Puget Sound (Seattle: n.p., 1915), 33.
19
George Vancouver, A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World, 1791-1795, W. Kaye Lamb, ed., vol. 3 (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1984), 893-95.
20
Vancouver, Voyage of Discovery, Vol. 3, 839.
21
Clayton, Islands of Truth, 129-37.
22
"The Voyage of Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo up the Pacific Coast," in David B. Quinn, ed., New American World: A Documentary History of North America to 1612, vol. 1 (New York: Arno Press, 1979), 453, 455, 460.
Kent Lightfoot and William Sim- mons, "Culture Contact in Protohistoric California: Social Contexts of Native and European Encoun- ters," Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 20 (1998): 138-69.
23
Anya Zilberstein, "Objects of Distant Exchange: The Northwest Coast, Early America, and the Global Imagination," William and Mary Quarterly 64 (July 2007): 596.
24
John R. Jewitt, Ajournai kept at Nootka Sound (Boston: n.p., 1807), 4.
John Jewitt, A Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt, ed. Richard Alsop (Middletown, CT: S. Richards, 1815),
John Jewitt, The Captive of Nootka: Or The Adventures of John R. Jewitt, ed. Samuel Griswold Goodrich (New York: J. P. Peaslee, 1835).
25
Jewitt, Journal, 23.
26
Jewitt, "[Maquinna] gave me liberty to dispense with the girl that he had forced me to take for a partner, which I did with great satisfaction." Jewitt, Journal, 40.
27
Jewitt, Narrative and the Adventures and Sufferings, 120-124.
28
Jewitt, Journal, 29.
29
Zilberstein, Objects of Distant Exchange, 606-608.
30
Jewitt, Narrative, 24-25.
31
Clayton, Island of Truth, 23.
32
Owens, The Wreck of the Sv. Nikolai, 45.
33
"The Narrative of Ben Hobucket," in Owens, The Wreck of the Sv. Nikolai, 69.
34
"The Narrative of Ben Hobucket," 69-70.
35
Ibid., 72-73.
36
Ibid., 69.
37
Owens, The Wreck oftheSv. Nikolai, 73.
38
Namias, White Captives, 84-115.
39
Owens, The Wreck of the Sv. Nikolai, 44.
40
Ibid., 53.
41
Ibid., 59.
42
Ibid., 59.
43
I. C. Campbell, Gone Native in Polynesia: Captivity Narratives and Experiences from the South Pacific (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998).
44
Owens, The Wreck of the Sv. Nikolai, v.
45
Warren L. Cook, Flood Tide of Empire: Spain and the Pacific Northwest, 1543-1819 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973), 102-103;
Owens, The Wreck of the Sv. Niko- lai, 24.
46
Jewitt, Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings, 124.
47
Owens, The Wreck of the Sv. Nikolai, 64.
48
Owens, "Frontiersman for the Tsar," 4.
49
Richard A. Pierce, Russia's Hawaiian Adventure, 1815-1818 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Cal- ifornia Press, 1965).
50
Owens, "Frontiersman for the Tsar," 17-20.
This content is only available via PDF.