From the 1881 incorporation of Los Angeles' first telephone company, telecommunications spread rapidly in the city and its surrounding region. This article details the proliferation of telephony, and its role in the region's rapid growth and in the formation of region-wide economic networks. Conversely, Pomona, 30 miles from Los Angeles, serves as an example of how local telephone systems could also facilitate sub-regional economic blocs. The history of the telephone, this article argues, is essential to understanding the L.A. region's multi-nucleated development and its economic structure.

Notes

Notes
1
"Fifth Annual Report," 1914, chart p. 68, fig. 13,
2
"Second-Third Annual Report," 1912-1913, 108-109, labpu.
4
"The First Telephone in Southern California" (September 16, 193 1), p. 3,
5
Ibid., 1.
6
"Notice," Los Angeles Daily Star, November 27, 1877.
7
Report reprinted in the Los Angeles Evening Express, November 27, 1877.
8
Los Angeles Evening Express, ibid.
9
Los Angeles Evening Express, November 28, 1877.
10
"Biographical Sketch, Rufus Rowe Haines," n.d., p. 19, att.
11
"History of the Telephone in Los Angeles for Downtown Shopping News" (October 1, 1940), ibid., att.
12
Sherer, "Beginnings," 1941, folder mss HM67910,
13
Ibid.
15
Sherer, "Beginnings," 1941, folder mss HM67910,
16
Ibid.
18
Edward G. Averill (August 30, 1930), ATT.
19
Mr. Earl Hotaling-Eastern Outfitting Company from the Southern California Telephone Company (February 6, 1942), p. 2, att.
20
Annual Report California Railroad Commission, Los Angeles County, 19 12, pucr.
21
"First Annual Report," January 1, 1910, charts p. 108-111, labpu.
22
"Fifth Annual Report," 1914, AT&T chart, p. 68, labpu.
23
"The Growth of Tele- phone Service in Los Angeles (To 1921)," p. 7, att.
24
"The Telephone," Los Angeles Times, February 26, 1882.
25
"Eleventh Annual Report," 1920, 52-53,
26
Lloyd Heck Marvin, "The Telephone Situation in Los Angeles," unpublished master's thesis, University of Southern California, 19 16, 24.
"Home Telephone Company's Automatic Service Marvel," November 25, 19 10, att.
27
Marvin, "The Telephone Situation in Los Angeles," 22.
Claude S. Fischer, America Calling: A Social History of the Telephone to 1940 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1992), 42.
28
Michael Negri and Antonio Hardt, Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).
Manuel Castells, The Informational City: Information, Technology, Economic Restructuring, and the Urban regional Process. (New York: Blackwell Press, 1989);
John Friedmann, "Where We Stand: A Decade of World City Research," in P. L. Knox and P. J. Taylor, eds., World Cities in a World System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995);
Saskia Sassen, "On Concentration and Centrality in the Global City," in P. L. Knox and P. J. Taylor, ibid.;
Michael Storper and Richard Walker, The Capitalist Imperative: Ter- ritory, Technology, and Industrial Growth (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1989).
29
Hardt and Negri, Empire, 281.
30
"'The Telephone Boom': How the Thing Works," Los Angeles Times, February 7, 1882;
32
Clark Davis, Company Men: White-collar Life and Corporate Cultures in Los Angeles, 1892-1941 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), 18.
33
Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States from Colonial Times to 1970, Part 1, 139-140.
Thirteenth Census 4 (1910): 132-149, 166-79, 186-203.
Clark Davis, "The View From Spring Street: White-Collar Men in the City of Angeles," in Sitton and Deverell, ibid., 86.
34
Hise, "Nature's Workshop," 183.
35
Los Angeles City Directory, 1884-85,
36
Davis, Company Men, 26.
37
Richter, "The Telephone as an Economic Instrument," 283.
38
Gottman, "Megalopolis and Antipolis," 198.
39
Eighth Annual Report, 1917, 120,
41
"The Telephone," Los Angeles Times, February 26, 1882.
42
"Our Telephone System," Los Angeies Times, October 26, 1883.
43
Los Angeles City Archives, v. 585, 52, in Robert M. Fogelson, The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993), 103.
44
Ibid.;
"First Annual Report," 1909-19 io, 11-12, 168, 170-17 1, 189,
46
Minutes of the Los Angeles Suburban Home Company, February 22, 1911, box 15, book no. 1, wp.
47
Ibid., February 13, 1911.
48
Ibid.
51
"Telephone; Report on Talk With Mr. Gilkyson This Morning," minutes of the Los Angeles Suburban Home Company, November 13, 1911, box 15, book no. 1, wp.
52
Tom Link, Universal City North Hollywood. A Centennial Portrait: An Illustrated History (Chatsworth, CA: Windsor Publications, 1991), 35-
53
Ibid.
54
Fogelson, Fragmented Metropolis, 104.
Los Angeles Suburban Home Company, November 13, 17, 25, 1911, book 1, box 15, wp.
55
Catherine Mulholland, The Owensmouth Baby: The Making of a San Fernando Valley Town. (Northridge, CA: Santa Susana Press, 1987), 23.
56
]. С Sherer, History of Glendale and Its Vicinity (Glendale, CA: Glendale History Publishing Company, 1922), 228.
57
Ibid.
58
Ibid.
59
"Telephone Improvements. Sunset Company Is Spending One Hundred Thousand Dollars at Glendale," Los Angeles Times, May 29, 19 10.
60
Fischer, America Calling, 94-100.
61
Los Angeles Times, July 31, 1885.
62
Pomona Centennial History, 123;
Timothy F. Nally, "Long Distance, Please," Pomona Valley Historian 6, no. 3 (July 1970): no.
63
Peter J. Dreher, "Early History of Cooperative Marketing of Citrus Fruit," Pomona Valley Historian 3, no. 4 (October 1967): 139-157;
By-laws of the San Antonio Fruit Exchange, October 26, 1893, Records of San Antonio Fruit Exchange, 1893-1947, box 2, volume 7,
64
Gloria Ricci Lothrop, Pomona: A Centennial History (Northridge, CA: Windsor Publications, 1988), 57-58, 532.
Pomona Board of Trade, Pomona Illustrated and Described (Pomona, С A: Pomona Land and Water Company, 1885)
Michael Bess, "Early Agriculture in Pomona Valley," Pomona Valley Historian 6, no. 2 (April 1970): 50-58.
65
Anthony L. Lehman, "The Sugar Beet Builds a Business," Pomona Valley Historian 5, no. 2 (April 1969): 72, 76
66
Ibid., 76.
67
Dreher, "Early History of Cooperative Marketing of Citrus Fruit, 149.
Pomona Valley Weekly Times, April 15, 1893.
68
Minutes, meetings of the board of directors, November 5, 1894, Records of San Antonio Fruit Exchange, 1893-1947, box 2,
69
Ibid., November 20, 1894.
70
Ibid., January 29, 1895.
71
Ibid., January 29, 1895.
Ibid.
72
Kelsey, "The March of Time," Telephony 70, no. n (March n, 1916), 26.
73
Mueller, Universal Service,
74
Mueller, Universal Service, 365.
75
Floyd Young, "Frost Warnings in the Early Days," Pomona Valley Historian 5, no. 4 (October 1969): 171.
76
Ibid., 171-172.
77
Pomona Centennial-Bicentennial Committee, Pomona Centennial History (1976), 110.
78
Roy L. Driscoll, éd. Pomona Valley Community Book (Pomona, CA: A. H. Cawston, 1950), 78.
79
San Antonio Light and Power Co. (1893),
Pomona Gas and Electric Co. (taken over by the Edison Electric Co. in 1899),
Consolidated Water Co. (1896).
80
Driscoll, Pomona Valley Community Book, 135.
81
Ibid.
82
"Pomona. Telephone Dividend," Los Angeles Times, August 6, 1905.
83
"The Week's Messages," 77.
84
Pomona Telephone Directory, August 1905,
85
Ibid.
86
"Practical Discussion the Principal Feature of California Association Meeting," 371.
87
Driscoll, Pomona Valley Community Book, 136.
88
City of Pomona v. Sunset Telephone & Telegraph Co., 224 U.S. 330 (1912).
Argued March 14 and 15, 1912. Decided April 8, 1912.
Driscoll, Pomona Valley Community Book, 135.
89
"Determined Fight. Telephone Company's Efforts to Keep Rival out of Orange May Prove Futile," Los Ange- les Times, March 30, 19 10.
90
"Relinquishes the Field: Sunset Telephone Company Closes Its Office at Pomona and Gives Territory to Its Rival," Los Angeles Times, July 2, 19 12;
"Telephone Directors Meet," Los Angeles Times, March 6, 19 12.
91
"Relinquishes the Field: Sunset Telephone Company Closes Its Office at Pomona and Gives Territory to Its Rival," Los Angeles Times, July 2, 19 12;
"Home Telephone of Pomona Expanding," Los Angeles Times, March 5, 19 13.
92
"The Telephone," Los Angeles Times, February 26, 1882.
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