San Diego's Horton Plaza redevelopment project represents a paradigm shift in urban planning ideology from an ideal of an inclusive, democratic social node based on retention of familiar landmarks to a focus on money-making, social exclusion, and scripted space privileging privatesector enterprises partnered with a revenue-hungry city government. The Horton Plaza mall, opened in 1985, illustrates some of the social consequences of this shift and identifies elements of the commercial center's controlled, themed environment.

Notes

Notes
1
Jordan Ervin, "Reinventing Downtown San Diego: A Spatial and Cultural Analysis of the Gaslamp Quar- ter," The Journal of San Diego History 53 (Fall 2007): 188-217.
2
Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 1960), 47, 66.
3
Lynch, 3, 47-48.
4
John Hannigan, Fantasy City (London: Routledge, 1008), 7.
5
Eric Avila, Popular Culture in the Age of White Flight: Fear and Fantasy in Sub- urban Los Angles (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004);
Eric Avila, "The Folk- lore of the Freeway: Space, Culture, and Identity in Postwar Los Angeles" Aztlan 23 (1998): 15-31
6
Mike Davis, "Fortress Los Angeles: The Militarization of Urban Space," in Variations on a Theme Park, ed. Michael Sorkin (New York: Hill and Wang, 1992), 155.
7
Sharon Zukin, The Cultures of Cities (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1995), 1.
8
Neil Smith, "New City, New Frontier: The Lower East Side as Wild, Wild West" in Variations on a Theme Park, ed. Michael Sorkin (New York: Hill and Wang, 1992), 75.
9
James Defilippis, "From a Public Re-Creation to Private Recreation: The Transformation of Public Space in South Street Seaport," Journal of Urban Affairs 19 (1997): 415.
10
Ervin. "Reinventine Downtown San Dieco." 191-92.
11
0Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), 16-17.
12
Ibid., 129.
13
Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 1960), 119.
14
Pamela Hamilton, "The Metamorphosis of Downtown San Diego," Urban Land Institute (April 1994), n.p.;
Ervin, "Reinventing Downtown San Diego," 193.
15
Kevin Lynch and Donald Appleyard, Temporary Paradise? A Look at the Special Landscape of the San Diego Region (San Diego: Marston Family, 1974), 22.
16
Ibid., 45.
17
Ibid., 44-45.
18
City of San Diego, "Gaslamp Quarter Preliminary Redevelopment Plan," March 1975;
SDHS Public Records Collection, City Plans R1.33, 2:33;
City of San Diego, "Gaslamp Quarter Planned Dis- trict," July 1985, sdhs Public Records Collection, City Plans R1.33, 2:30.
City of San Diego Planning Department, "Centre City Development Plan: Summary," 1975, microform available at the San Diego State University Library, sdsu (cvl Docs SD-C400-P71 -C397/4A);
Gaslamp Quarter Association and the City of San Diego, "Gaslamp Quarter Planned District," February 1975, San Diego Historical Society Pub- lic Records Collection Ri .33, 2:30;
"Centre City San Diego Community Plan," 1976, microform available a0t sdsu (cvl Docs SD-C400-P71-C397/5).
19
Hamilton, "The Metamorphosis of Downtown San Diego," n.p.
20
Larry Ford, Metropolitan San Diego: How Geography and Lifestyle Shape a New Urban Environment (Philadel- phia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), 113.
21
Jacques Gordon Horton Plaza, San Diego: A Case Study of PubliC'Private Development (mit Center for Real Estate Development, 1985), 38, 46.
22
City of San Diego Redevelopment Agency, Horton Plaza Redevelopment Project (July 25, 1972), 9, San Diego Historical Society Public Records Collection, City and County Reports R2.72, 2:9.
23
roma (Rockrise Odermatt Mountjoy Amis Urban Design Consultants), Horton Plaza Redevelopment Project (San Diego, CA, 1973), 1-2, 4, San Diego State University Library.
24
Beth Coffelt, "The City is Dead Long Live the City," San Diego Magazine 25 (April 19, 1974): 112;
ROMA (Rockrise Odermatt Mountjoy Amis Urban Design Consultants), Horton Plaza Redevelopment Project (San Diego, California, 1973), 1, 4, 39, sdsu.
26
Urban Land Institute Case Study 16 (October-December, 1986): n.p.;
Jacques Gordon, Horton Plaza, San Diego: A Case Study of PubUc-Private Development (mit Center for Real Estate Development, 1985), 6
27
Frienden and Sagalyn, 5-7, 171.
28
Ibid., 172.
29
Ibid., 171-73.
30
William Leach, Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture (New York: Random House, 1993), 16.
31
Günther Barth, City People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 110-11.
32
Ibid., 127.
33
Lizabeth Cohen, "From Town Center to Shopping Center: The Reconfiguration of Community Market Places in Postwar America," American Historiad Review 101 (Oct 1996): 1053.
34
Ibid., 1056.
35
Ibid., 1059.
36
Dennis Judd, "Constructing the Tourist Bubble" in The Tourist City, eds. Dennis Judd and Susan Fainstein (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999), 45.
37
Ibid., 35, 39.
38
Gordon, 64.
39
Ibid., 43, 83-84.
40
Gordon, 37, 87, 116.
41
Gordon, 87.
42
Gordon, 116.
44
Ibid.
45
Judith Moore, "Center Piece: Horton Plaza, from Within and Without," San Diego Reader 16 (July 16, 1987): 1.
46
"Fourth Avenue Cleanup Plan Has Its Critics: Targeted Businessmen Resent Status as Undesirables," San Diego Union Tribune (September 3, 1984), Bi.
47
Ann Perry, "Horton Plaza a Bold Step to Bring Life to Downtown, But 'One Big Risk," San Diego Union Tribune (April 8, 1985), A17.
48
Ibid.
49
"Horton Plaza: The Urban Festival Opens August 9," a special report by San Diego Home/Garden Magazine in cooperation with Ernest W. Hahn, Inc., and the Centre City Development Corporation (1985), HP, 26.
50
Ibid.
51
Gordon, 3.
52
"Horton Plaza: The Urban Festival Opens August 9," a special report by San Diego Home/Garden Magazine in cooperation with Ernest W. Hahn, Inc., and the Centre City Development Corporation (1985), НР28-НР30.
53
Merry Ovnick, August 2008.
54
Gordon, 138-39;
Urban Land Institute Case Study 16 (October-December, 1986): n.p.
55
Urban Land Institute Case Study 16 (October-December, 1986): n.p.
56
"Horton Plaza: The Urban Festival Opens August 9," a special report by San Diego Home/Garden Magazine in cooperation with Ernest W. Hahn, Inc., and the Centre City Development Corporation (1985), HP27, 42.
57
Jim Okerblom, "Changes Due in Parking Rates Hit Horton Plaza," San Diego Union Tribune (November 5, 1985), Bi.
58
Paul Krueger, "One Plaza, Plus Tax," San Diego Reader 14 (July 18, 1985): 4;
Gordon, 142.
59
Sharon Spivak, "Mexican Dignitaries Given Pre-Shopper Downtown Tour," San Diego Union Tribune (August 28, 1985), B3;
Lorie Hearn, "Horton Plaza Opening to be a Historic Day," San Diego Union Tri- bune (July 10, 1985), B4.
60
Spivak, "Mexican Dignitaries Given Pre-Shopper Downtown Tour," B4;
Lucretia Steiger, "After Hectic Debut Horton Plaza Plans a Full Schedule," San Diego Union Tribune (August 10, 1985), C2.
61
Jim Okerblom, "Horton Plaza Lures Thousands," San Diego Union Tribune (August 11, 1985), Bi.
62
Urban Land Institute Case Study 16 (October-December, 1986): n.p.
63
Lori Weisberg, "Horton Plaza Lures a Variety of Visitors," San Diego Union Tribune (August 10, 1986), Ai.
64
John Hannigan, Fantasy City (London: Routledge, 1998), 90-93.
65
Kay Kaiser, "Downtown Plaza—A Good Mall But Not Great Architecture," San Diego Union Tribune (August 10, 1986), A8.
66
John Findlay, Magic Lands: Western City scapes and American Culture After 1940 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1992), 296.
67
Ervin, "Reinventing Down- town San Diego," 205-209.
68
Jacques Gordon, Horton Plaza, San Diego: A Case Study of Public-Private Development (mit Center for Real Estate Development, 1985), 84-85, available at the San Diego Historical Society or San Diego State Library.
69
Neal Matthews, "The Bus Stops Where?" San Diego Reader 14 (April 4, 1985): 4.
70
Judith Moore, "Center Piece: Horton Plaza, from Within and Without," San Diego Reader 16 (July 16, 1987): 1, 11.
71
"Car Attendant Robbed at Horton Plaza," San Diego Union Tribune (October 17, 1986), B6;
"Man Robs Store in Horton Plaza," San Diego Union Tribune (August 28, 1986), B6;
"3 Rob Man of Gold Jewelry, $500 in Cash at Horton Plaza," San Diego Union Tribune (April 8, 1986), B5;
"Woman is Robbed at a Teller Machine in Horton Plaza," San Dieso Union Tribune (September 18, 1087), B6.
72
Moore, "Center Piece: Horton Plaza, from Within and Without," 11.
73
Lizabeth Cohen, "From Town Center to Shopping Center: The Reconfiguration of Community Market Places in Postwar America," American Historical Review 101 (Oct 1996): 1069.
74
Ibid.
75
Paul Krueger, "The Inside Story," San Diego Reader 15 (April 17, 1986): 9.
76
Ibid.;
Bernard Frienden and Lynne Sagalyn, Downtown Inc. How America Rebuilds Cities (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 1989), 232.
77
Cheryl Clark, "Horton Plaza Rejects Condoms in Window," San Diego Union Tribune (June 26, 1987), B3.
78
Ibid.
79
Don Mitchell, "The End of Public Space? People's Park, Definitions of the Pubic, and Democracy," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85 (1995): 120.
80
Jackie McGrath, "Park in it and Rotate," San Diego Reader 17 (July 21, 1988): 4, 30;
William Olsen, "Their Own Space," San Diego Reader 15 (November 20, 1986): 5, 40.
81
Ibid.
82
Ibid.
83
Ibid.
84
Paul Krueger, "The Inside Story," San Diego Reader 14 (May 16, 1985): 3;
Paul Krueger, "The Inside Story," San Diego Reader 13 (May 17, 1984): 8;
Paul Goldberger, "In Downtown San Diego, A Freewheeling Fan- tasy," Neu; York Times (March 19, 1986), A12;
Kay Kaiser, "Downtown Plaza—A Good Mall But Not Great Architecture," San Diego Union Tribune (August io, 1986), A8;
Dan Benson, "Horton Plaza's Ugly Behind is Getting a Face Lift," San Diego Union Tribune (January 20, 1901), Fi.
85
Richard Amero, "Horton Plaza History," San Diego Reader (May 24, 1990), 10.
86
William Whtye, City: Rediscovering the Center (New York: Anchor Books, 1990), 206-21.
87
Ibid.;
Ervin, "Reinventing Downtown San Diego," 209-10.
88
Paul Krueger, "Inside the Park," San Diego Reader 18 (June 22, 1989): 4.
89
Jennifer Bell, "Horton Plaza at 20: Precursor to Downtown's Rebirth," San Diego Business Journal (July 18, 2005), 22;
Broderick, "Horton Hears A Cha-Ching!," 13-16.
90
Pat Broderick, "Downtown San Diego Visionaries Planted Seeds for Reinvention," San Diego Business Jour- nal (August 15, 2005), 4, 42, 53;
Pat Broderick, "Horton Hears A Cha-Ching!," San Diego Business Jour- nal (November 25, 2005), 13-16;
Renée Beasley Jones, "Chain Reaction," San Diego Business Journal (June 21,2004), 1,25.
91
Larry Ford, Metropolitan San Diego: How Geography and Lifestyle Shape a New Urban Environment (Philadel- phia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), 115.
92
Ibid., 115-18.
93
Skelley, "Up and Running," n.p;
Ford, 110.
94
Larry Ford, America's New Downtowns: Revitalizaúon or Reinvention? (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Uni- versity Press, 2003);
Alison Isenberg, Downtown America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004).
95
Alan Nevin, "The sro: It's Half of Downtown," San Diego Metropolitan Uptown Examiner and Daily Business Report (Dec. 2002).
96
James Defilippis, "From a Public Re-Creation to Private Recreation: The Transformation of Public Space in South Street Seaport," Journal of Urban Affairs 19 (1997 ) : 415;
Don Mitchell, "The End of Public Space ? People's Park, Definitions of the Public, and Democracy," Annals of the Association of American Geogra- phers 85 (1995): 115-20.
David Nasaw, Going Out (New York: Basic Books, 1993).
97
Dennis Judd and Susan Fainstein, "Global Forces, Local Strategies, and Urban Tourism" in The Tourist City, eds. Dennis iudd and Susan Fainstein (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999), 12-13.
98
Larry Ford, Cities and Buildings: Skyscrapers, Skid Rows, and Suburbs (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Uni- versity Press, 1994), 91.
99
Kevin Lynch and Donald Appleyard, Temporary Paradise? A Look at the Special Landscape of the San Diego Region (San Diego: Marston Family, 1974), 44-45.
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