In 1932, at the worst point in the Great Depression, the small city of Anaheim, California, pioneered an experiment in self-liquidating stamp scrip. It was intended as a means of reducing unemployment while stimulating participating businesses. The Anaheim Plan put 157 men to work for a total of 8,750 hours, but proved problematical as a means of exchange. The experiment only lasted three months. Later, Anaheim's experiment was overshadowed by a Yale professor's advocacy of a similar plan and an experiment in Iowa. This article analyzes the Anaheim Plan's potential and its shortcomings while bringing long-overdue credit to this trail-blazing attempt to add to the circulating media of exchange and to increase productive employment in a small Southern California city prior to the New Deal.

Notes

Notes
1
Irving Fisher, Stamp Scrip (New York: Adelphi, 1933).
2
Men Without Money (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1933),
"Charles Zyl- stra and Stamped Scrip -how a Dutch immigrant sought a solution to the Great Depression," in Dutch Immigrants on the Plains, ed. Paul Fessier, et al. (Holland, MI: The Joint Archives of Holland, 2006), 162-80.
"Scrip Money and Slump Cures: Iowa's Experiments with Alter- native Currency during the Great Depression," in The Annals of Iowa 64, no. 3 (Summer 2005): 221-45,
3
Silvio Gesell, Die Reformation im Münzwesen als Brücke zum sozialen Staat (Buenos Aires: Selbstverlag, 1891).
4
"Coal Mine Operator Issues His Own Money," New York Times, March 29, 193 1, p. E3.
5
The Way Out was first published in Austin, Texas, in November 193 1 .
6
Elliott to Hans Cohrssen, April 15, 1933, in the Fisher Archive at New York Public Library.
7
"Council Approves New Relief Plan," Anaheim Gazette, January 7, 1932, p. 1 ; "City to Try 'Anaheim Plan,' " Anaheim Bulletin, January 6, 1932, p. 1.
8
Editorial, "The 'Anaheim Plan,'" Anaheim Bulletin, January 14, 1932, p. 4.
9
"Rotarians are Told of Emergency Relief Plan," Chula Vista Star, March 4, 1932.
10
" 'Anaheim Plan' Test Opens Tuesday," Anaheim Bulletin, January 18, 1932, p. 1 .
"25 Men Placed in Jobs Under 'Anaheim Plan,'" Anaheim Bulletin, January 19, 1932, p. 1.
11
The Anaheim Gazette published a full list in its edition of January 21, 1932.
13
"Anaheim Relief Plan Receives Acid Test as 25 Men Employed," Anaheim Gazette, January 21, 1932, pp. 1, 3.
14
"'Anaheim Plan' Success Reported, Anaheim Bulletin, January 26, 1932, p. 1.
15
"'Anaheim Plan' Gains Backing," Los Angeles Times, February 1, 1932, p. A8.
16
"Anaheim Plan is Continued," Anaheim Bulletin, January 29, 1932, p. 1.
17
"Relief Plan Gets City Employe Aid," Anaheim Gazette, February 18, 1932;
City Employes to Aid Anaheim Plan," Anaheim Bulletin, February 17, 1932, p. 10.
18
"Job-Making Issue Faced," Los Angeles Times, February 25, 1932, p. 13;
"Anaheim Plan Meets Favor," Los Angeles Times, February 29, 1932.
"Supervisors Study Anaheim Plan," Anaheim Gazette, March 3, 1932, pp. 1, 8;
"Anaheim Plan Lures County," Anaheim Bulletin, February 29, 1932, pp. 1, 8.
19
" 'Anaheim Plan' Meets Favor," Los Angeles Times, February 29, 1932;
Supervisors Study Anaheim Plan," Ana- heim Gazette, March 3, 1932;
"Anaheim Plan Lures County," Anaheim Bulletin, February 29, 1932, pp. 1, 8.
20
"Anaheim Plan Gains Impetus, Anaheim Bulletin, March 15, 1932.
Elliott himself claimed that only 2,500 vouchers were issued (letter to Cohrssen, April 15, 1933).
21
"Anaheim Aids Unemployed," Anaheim Bulletin, March 19, 1932.
23
Elliott, The Anaheim Plan manuscript attached to his letter to Lester Milligan, Mason City, February 6, 1932 [sic -1933], in the Milligan archives, Mason City (Iowa) Public Library.
24
"The Anaheim Plan," Los Angers Times, February 3, 1932, p. A4.
25
Elliott, The Anaheim Plan.
28
Elliott to Cohrssen, April 15, 1933.
29
Charles V. Kappen and Ralph A. Mitchell, Depression Scrip of the United States, Period of the 1930s States A thru I (San Jose, CA: Globe Print Company 1961), 19-20.
31
Elliott to Cohrssen, April is, iom.
32
Joe Elliott to Lester Milligan, February 6, 1932 [sic -1933], in the Milligan archives, Mason City (Iowa) Public Library.
supra note 1 .
33
Elliott to Milligan, February 6, 1933.
34
Elliott to Cohrssen, April 15, 1933.
35
The Los Angeles Times report of the Los Angeles meetings of the State Unemployment Commission (April 14 and 15, 1932)
36
Elliott to Cohrssen, April 15, 1933.
37
Ralph A. Mitchell and Neil Shafer, Standard Catalog of Depression Scrip of the United States (loia, WI: Krause Publications, 1984), 36.
40
Elliott to Cohrssen, April 15, 1933.
43
"Anaheim Relief Plan to Be in Effect Monday," The Chula Vista Star, March 11, 1932, pp. 1 , 8.
44
"Relief Committee Has Meeting Friday Night," The Chula Vista Star, May 13, 1932, p. 1.
45
Elliott to Cohrssen, April 15, 1933.
47
Mitchell and Shafer, 40.
48
http://www.ssa.gov/history/towns5.html (accessed February 1 , 2007).
Chelan, WA, in 1937.
Mitchell and Shafer, 261,
George S. Vanderwende, "The Chelan-Townsend Trust Fund and Its Checks," Paper Money 11:2 (1972): 88.
49
Daniel Hanne, " 'Harn and Eggs' Left and Right: The California Scrip Pension Initiatives of 1938 and 1939," Southern California Quarterly 82 (2000): 183-230,
R. Michael Alvarez, William Deverell, and Elizabeth Penn, The "Ham and Eggs" Movement in Southern California: Public Opinion on Eco- nomic Redistribution in the 1938 Campaign (University of Southern California Center for the Study of Law and Politics Working paper No. 12, January 21, 2003), available at http://law.usc.edu/academics/centers/ cslp/papers/cslp'wp-o 12.pdf (accessed March 4, 2008)
50
"'Local Tender' Plan Ordered," Los Angeles Times, January 7, 1932, p. 6.
51
" 'Anaheim Plan' Under Way," Los Angeles Times, January 20, p. 11,
"The Anaheim Idea" Los Angeles Times, February 3, p. A4.
52
"Unwilling to Give Relief, Congress May Offer to Lend It," Business Week, March 9, 1932, 16-18.
53
Joanna C. Colcord, "The West is Different," The Survey, June 1, 1932, 221.
54
Parrish and Weishaar. 10.
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