Hired Chilean laborers who ventured to California during the early years of the gold rush rarely appear in the historical record. However, notarized contracts signed in the cities of Valparaíso and Santiago between 1848 and 1852 illuminate how hired laborers, mostly illiterate peons, actively shaped companies and expeditions bound for California. By reading these for evidence of what the Latin Americanist Arnold Bauer has identified as a "system" of "give and take, choice and accommodation,"¹ we can better understand how even the most marginalized workers made the transnational spaces of the North American West and the Pacific world comprehensible within their own schemas and patterns. This paper proposes that hired laborers were central to the organization of Chileans' emigration patterns in the California gold rush; that their relations were far more complex than the "free" or "unfree" binary representations supposed; that they actively mapped the relations of production they expected to deploy in California's physical and social spaces; and that by turning to alternative archival sources, U.S.-based historians can better link the histories of the Pacific world to those of the North American West.

Notes

Notes
1
Arnold J. Bauer, "Rural Workers in Spanish America: Problems of Peonage and Oppression," Hispanic Amer- ican Historical Review 59, no. 1 (1979): 35.
2
Jay Monaghan, Chile, Peru and the California Gold Rush of 1849 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Cal- ifornia Press, 1973), 6-8.
Although Monaghan suggests that Andrews departed California on June 14, 1848, my calculations imply a departure of June 19, 1848,
"Movimiento Maritimo: Entradas," El Comercio de Valparaíso, August 19, 1848.
3
"Movimiento Maritimo: Entradas," El Comercio de Valparaíso, August 19, 1848;
Monaghan, 16.
4
Brian Loveman, Chile: The Legacy of Hispanic Capitalism, 3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 116.
5
Pacific Centuries: Pacific and Pacific Rim History since the Sixteenth Century, Lionel Frost Flynn and A. J. H. Latham, eds. (London: Routledge, 1999);
Defining the Pacific: Opportunities and Constraints, Paul W. Blank and Fred Spier, eds. (London: Ashgate Publishing, Limited, 2002);
David Igler, "Diseased Goods: Global Exchanges in the Eastern Pacific Basin, 1770-1850," The American Historical Review (June 2004), http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/109.3/igler.html, accessed April 16, 2008.
6
Arnold J. Bauer, "Chilean Rural Labor in the Nineteenth Century," American Historical Review 76, no. 4 (Oct. 1971): 1075, 1080-81
Loveman, 130.
7
George E. Faugstead, Jr., The Chilenos in the California Gold Rush (San Francisco: R and E Research Associ- ates, 1973), 6.
8
Monaghan, 16-21;
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, vol. 6: San Francisco 1848-1859 (San Fran- cisco: The History Company, 1888), 125;
George P. Hammond, ed., The harían Papers, vol. 7 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1960), 355.
9
Atherton wrote this letter to Larkin on or around September 10, 1848,
Bancroft, 125;
Hammond, 353;
Monaghan, 24.
"Movimiento Maritimo," El Comercio de Valparaíso, September 23, 1848.
Chile dated December 1 , 1848,
"Cross Hobson & Co.," El Mercurio de Valparaíso, March 2, 1849.
10
"Movimiento Maritimo," El Comercio de Valparaíso, September 12, 1848;
Monterey Californian, November 11, 1848.
11
"Movimiento Maritimo," El Comercio de Valparaíso, September 12, 1848.
12
Hammond, 353;
"Movimiento Maritimo," El Comercio de Valparaíso, September 23, 1848.
14
Contrato de peónaje: Santiago King con varios peones, September 12, 1848
Archivo Nacional de Chile de la Administración, [hereafter arnad] Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 384, fol. 372 vta-373.
15
Bailey Miliard, History of the San Francisco Bay Region, vol. 3 (Chicago: The American Historical Society, Inc., 1924), 59-62, 71.
"Movimiento Maritimo," El Comercio de Valparaíso, Sept. 12, 1848.
Genealogical Records Committee, Daughters of the American Revolution of California, California census of 1852 [microform] / copied under the direction of the Genealogical Records Committee, Daughters of the American Revolution of Cal- ifornia, vol. 6 (San Francisco, part 1), (Piedmont, CA: The Committee, 1935) 69, entries 24-25.
King of William's life in California, especially in service as editor and founder of the San Francisco Bulletin,
Michelle E. Jolly, "The Price of Vigilance: Gender, Politics, and the Press in Early San Francisco," The Pacific His- torical Review 73, no. 4 (Nov. 2004): 541-79;
Robert M. Senkewicz, Vigilantes in Gold Rush San Fran- cisco (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1986).
David A. Johnson, "Vigilance and the Law: The Moral Authority of Popular Justice in the Far West," American Quarterly 33, no. 5, (Winter 1981): 558-86;
Roger W. Lotchin, San Francisco, 1849-1856: From Hamlet to City (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974);
Stanton Coblentz, Villains and Vigilantes: The Fabulous Story of James King of William and Pioneer Justice in Califor- nia (New York: A. S. Barnes, 1961).
16
Contrato de peonaje: Santiago King con varios peones, September 12, 1848. arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 384, fol. 372 vta.-373;
Carlos U. Lopez, Chilenos in California: A Study of the 1850, 1852, and 1860 Censuses (San Francisco: R and E Research Associates, 1973), ix-x.
17
Lopez, Chilenos in California;
Vicente Perez Rosales, Diario de un viaje a California (Santiago: Sociedad de Bibliófilos Chilenos, 1949), 16;
К. Sisson, "Diaspora, Deseos, and Dead Gringos: Chilean Contract Labor in the Cal- ifornia Gold Rush" (BA Thesis, Stanford University, 2003);
F. Purcell, "Too Many Foreigners for My Taste': Mexicans, Chileans and Irish in California, 1848-1880" (PhD Diss., University of California, Davis, 2004);
El Comercio de Valparaíso, November 16, 1848;
Monaghan, 53.
18
Roberto Hernandez Cornejo, Los Chilenos en San Francisco de California: Recuerdos Históricos de la emigración por los descubrimientos del oro, iniciada en 1848 (Valparaíso: San Rafael, 1930), 96.
19
Hernandez Cornejo, 74.
20
"Crónica Interior," El Comercio de Valparaíso, October 28, 1848.
21
El Mercurio de Valparaíso, November 4, 1848.
22
El Mercurio de Valparaíso, November 4, 7-10, 1848.
23
Valparaiso, suggested that of the 1 14
Valparaiso in December 1848, only 39
Chilean, followed by 26 Englishmen, 22
"Pas- sengers for California," The Neighbour, December 29, 1848;
"Movimiento Marítimo," El Comercio de Val- paraíso, January 29, 1849.
25
Don Lorenzo Leyton in a contract he signed in December 1848.
Contrata D[on] Lorenzo Leyton D[o]n Pastor Fron[co]so y otros, Dec. 23, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 503, fol. 518-20 vta.;
Convenio de D. Manuel Barañas con Jacinto Celis y Otros, Dec. 22, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Santiago), vol. 198, no. 307, fol. 247-348;
Convenio de D. Manuel Barañas con Francisco Ropero, Dec. 22, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Santiago), vol. 198, no. 308., fol. 348-59-
26
Contrato de peonaje: Santiago King con varios peones, September 12, 1848, arnad, vol. 82, no. 384, fol. 372 vta.-373.
27
Compania Badiola, Andres y otros, para California, February 27, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Val- paraíso), vol. 80, no. 224, fol. 269-70 vta.
28
Letter from Anonymous, June 8, 1849, in Hernandez Cornejo, 115.
29
Contrata de Sociedad, D[o]n Manuel Castro y Castro, Don Juan Y. Gutierres, D[o]n Pedro Nolasco Castro y otros, Feb. is, 1840, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 81, no. 246, fol. я 15-16 vta.
30
Vicente Pérez Rosales, "Diary of a Journey to California," in We Were 4çers! : Chilean Accounts of the Cali- fornia Gold Rush, Translated and edited by Edwin A. Beilharz and Carlos U. López (Pasadena, CA: Ward Ritchie Press, 1976), 37.
31
Contralta] D[o]n Rafael Garmendía y D[o]n Pedro [Segundo] Martinez, Dec. 16, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 488, fol. 503;
Contrata D[o]n Juan Vargas, Bernardo Santi y otros, Dec. 18, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 82, no. 494, fol. 509 vta.~5ii;
Contrata Don Flrancisjco Leyton, José M[arí]a Belmudez y otros, Dec. 20, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Val- paraíso), vol. 82, no. 498, fol. 513V-15;
Contrata D[o]n Bernardino Bravo y otros, Feb. 16, 1849. arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 131, fol. 134 vta.-i38.
32
El Mercurio de Valparaíso, Nov. 30, 1848.
33
"Cross Hobson & Co.," El Mercurio de Valparaíso, March 2, 1849.
34
Contrata D. José Manuel Ramires y Don Juan Sampson y otros, Jan. 5, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 9, fol. 12-14;
Compañía D. José Manuel Ramires y D. Juan Sampson, Jan. 5, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 10, fol. 14-15.
Sarah Keyes, "Golden Dissonance, Chilenos in Gold Rush California: Race, Labor, and Implications for the Western Hemisphere" (BA The- sis, Pomona College, 2004),
35
Susan Lee Johnson, Roaring Camp: The Social World of the California Gold Rush (New York: Norton, 2000), 99-274.
36
Don Felipe Olguien a favor de Don Manuel José Ubilla, Nov. 12, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Santiago), vol. 208, fol. 152 vta.-i53 vta.
37
Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys that states it was copied from one for sale in the Bolsa (exchange) in Valparaiso, Chile, in January of 1850.
Valparaíso, Enero 4 de 1850,
John Bidwell Papers, Map G 04362 S 12 1850 B5 Case С Bancroft, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
38
Arnold J. Bauer, "Rural Workers in Spanish America, 34-63.
39
Compania D[o]n A[bdon] Froylan Silva у Don José Dolores Ramires, Jan. 30, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 83, no. 84, fol. 77-79-
40
Barry Reay, "The context and meaning of popular liter- acy: Some evidence from Nineteenth-Century rural England," (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).
41
Contrata Los S[eñore]s Naylors Oxley y C[ompani]a y D[o]n Manuel O[ctavio] Espic, March 14, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 83, no. 179, fol. 184-86.
42
Contrata D[o]n Car- los Barrilochet y otros, March 1, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 83, no. 157, fol. 160-61 .
Venta de Buque D[o]n Juan Bautista Garate por D[oñ]a Juana Toman de a D[o]n Marcial Berneret, March 16, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 189, fol. 193 vta.-i94-
El Comercio de Valparaíso, Nov. 3, 1848.
Srs. Vives y Compañía, see Contrata D[o]n Bernardino Bravo y Otros, Feb. 16, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 83, no. 131, fol. 134 vta.-i38.
43
Contrato de peonaje: Santiago King con varios peones, September 12, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso) vol. 82, no. 384, fol. 372 vta.~373
"Califor- nia," El Comercio de Valparaíso, February 6, 1849, 2.
Monterey Californian, November 11 , 1848. See also Richard H. Dillon, ed., '"Rejoice Ye Thieves And Har- lots!' The Editorials of James King of William," California Historical Quarterly 37, no. 2, (1958): 137.
Miliard, 59-62, 71.
Lopez, Chilenos in California, 14, 17.
44
Anonymous Doctor [probably Diego B. Taylor], January 24, 1849, in Hernandez Cornejo, 92.
45
Hernandez Cornejo, 145.
46
James T. Ayers, Gold and Sunshine: Reminisces of Early California, (Boston: Richard G. Badgar, Gorham Press, 1922), 46; Johnson, 66; Sisson, chapter two.
47
Compania: Abalos y Uríbe, con otros, June 28, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 84, no. 70, fol. 77-78 vta.
48
Contrata: Fierro y Compania con Javier Viděla y otros, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 86, no. 29, fol. 39-40.
49
Contrato de peonaje: Santiago King con varios peones, September 12, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso) vol. 82, no. 384, fol. 372 vta.-373.
50
Contrata: El Licensado Don Joaquin Hevel y otros, February 3, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Val- paraíso) vol. 83, no. 95, fol. 91-93 vta.
51
Contrata: El Licensado Don José Vicente Vargas, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 188, fol. 192-93 vta.
52
Contrata: El Licensado Don Joaquin Hevel y otros, February 3, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Val- paraíso) vol. 83, no. 95, fol. 91-93 vta.
53
Convenio de Don Manuel Barañas con Jacinto Celis y otro, ARNAD, Colección Notarial (Santiago), vol. 198, no. 307, fol. 347-48
Convenio de Don Manuel Barañas con Francisco Ropero, arnad, Colección Notarial (Santiago), vol. 198, no. 309, fol. 348-49.
54
Bauer, "Rural Workers in Spanish America," 35-43.
55
Contrata: Don Francisco Leyton, José Maria Delmudez, y otros, December 20, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 498, fol. 513 vuelta-515.
56
"Rural Workers in Spanish America," 40.
57
Bauer, "Rural Workers in Spanish America," 44.
58
Contrata: Pinero y Garmendía, Salas Bascuña y Compania, Don Manuel Pinero y Otros, December 15, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 82, no. 487, fol. 501-502 vuelta;
Contra(ta) Don Rafael Garmendía y Don Pedro Segundo Martinez, December 16, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Val- paraíso), vol. 82, no. 488, fol. 503-504 vuelta.
59
Compania: Don G. Jagerschmidt y otros, May 21, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 287, fol. 293 vuelta-295 vuelta.
60
Compania: Don Rafael Diaz Vargas y Compañia y otros, July 7, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Val- paraíso), vol. 83, no. 364, fol. 379 vuelta-380 vuelta.
61
Contrata de sociedad Los Señores Orrego y Hermanos y üon remando Luco, rebruary 3, 1049, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 81, no. 229, fol. 299 vuelta-300 vuelta;
Contrata de sociedad Los Señores Orrego y Hermanos y Don Manuel Luco, February 3, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Val- paraíso), vol. 81, no. 230, fol. 301 vuelta-302 vuelta;
Contrata de sociedad Don Fernando Luco y Don Francisco Solis, Februrary 3, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 81, no. 231, fol. 302 vuelta-304.
Monaghan, 156, 241-42.
62
Contrata, Los Señores Ovalle hermanos y otros, January 2, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 4, fol. 4 vuelta-6.
63
Contrata Don Francisco Leyton, José Maria Belmudez, y otros, December 20, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 498, fol. 513 vuelta-515.
64
Compañia: Juan Vargas y Don J. Francisco Leyton, December 18, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 80, no. 134, fol. 173-74 vuelta.
65
Contrata Don Lorenzo Leyton, Don Pastor Froncoso y otros, December 23, 1848, arnad, Colección Notar- ial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 503, fol. 518-20 vuelta.
66
Testamento Don Rafael Gamboa, November 13, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 449, fol. 449-73 vuelta.
Nicolas Gamboa, see Contrata Don Lorenzzo Ley- ton, Don Pastor Froncozo y otros, December 23, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 503, fol. 518-20 vuelta.
Sustitución, Doña Mercedes Gamboa a favor de Don Gregorio Pas- cual del Fierro, March 14, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 83, no. 180, fol. 186-186 vuelta.
67
Compañia Rafael Garmendia y otroa para California, March 8, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Val- paraíso), vol. 80, no. 250, fol. 298 vuelta-300 vuelta;
Agregación a Compañia, Rafael Garmendia y otros para California, March 13, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 80, no. 263, fol. 312.
68
Contrata Segunda, Los Señores Ovalles Hermanos y otros, September 11, 1849, arnad, Colección Notar- ial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 450, fol. 458-59.
69
Bauer, "Rural Workers in Spanish America," 36.
70
Pérez Rosales, 11.
71
Purcell, 6-20.
72
Contrata Don Rafael Garmendia y Don Pedro Segundo Martinez, December 16, 1848, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 82, no. 488, fol. 501-504 vuelta.
73
Anonymous, June 8, 1849, in Hernandez Cornejo, 115.
arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 83, nos. 96-98, 100, fol. 93 vuelta-98 vuelta.
Contrata Don José Antonio Alemparte, Don Pablo Zorrilla, y otros, February 9, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 113, fol. 1 14-15 vuelta.
Compañia, Don José Antonio Alemparte, Don Pablo Zorrilla, Don Ygnacio Adaro, February 12, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 83, no. 116, fol. 1 19-21 vuelta.
74
Günther Peck, Reinventing Free Labor: Padrones and Immigrant Workers in the North American West, 1880-1930 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 26.
75
El Progreso, Santiago, February 3, 1849; Purcell 9.
76
El Comercio de Valparaíso, February 6, 1849; Monaghan, 177.
77
"Tone of the Chilean Press," The Neighbour, March 1 , 1849.
78
Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking Calif ornians , 1846-1 890 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970), 55-56; Faugstead, 37.
79
David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (New York: Verso, 1999), 48.
80
Pitt, 55.
81
Contrata Don José Manuel Ramires y Don Juan Sampson y Otros, January 4, 1849, and Compania Don José Manuel Ramires y Don juan Sampson, January 5, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 83, nos. 9-10, fol. 12-15.
Ramire(s/z) and Sampson in Henry L. Wells and William H. Chamberlain, His- tory of Yuba County, California (Oakland, CA: Thompson & West, 1879), Chapter 33, Ferry Bar. Online text transcribed by Kathy Sedler and Craig Hahn, 2003, available at http://www.calarchives4u.com/ history/yuba/chap3 3.htm. Accessed September 17, 2007.
http:// www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/5views/5views5h74.htm. Accessed April 16, 2008.
82
Pitt, 56.
83
Pérez Rosales, 71.
84
Monaghan, 181.
85
El Comercio de Valparaíso, August 17, 1849, 2.
86
Hernandez Cornejo, 140-46;
Purcell, 66-70.
87
"Placer Intelli- gence," Alta California, July 12, 1849; "Meeting of Miners," Alta California, July 26, 1849; Pitt, 56.
88
Alta California, August 4, 9, 1849 and El Comercio de Valparaíso, September 25-28, 1849; October 1, 6, 1849.
Purcell, 70-73.
89
Chilean War, see articles in Alta California, December 31, 1849, January 2, 1850, and January 7, 1850.
Purcell, 102-20
Johnson, 193-207.
Ayers, 46-58;
Ramon Jil Navarro, "California in 1849," in We Were 4Qers!, 79-90;
Faug- stead, 34-45;
Steve Giacobbi, Chile and Her Argonauts in the Gold Rush: 1848-1856 (Reprint, San Fran- cisco: R and E Research Associates, 1974), 38-43;
Abraham P. Nasatir, "Chileans in California During the Gold Rush Period and the Establishment of the Chilean Consulate," California Historical Quar- terly 53 (Spring 1974): 63.
90
"Sacramento and Placer Intelligence," Alta California, April 5, 1850, 3;
Johnson, 210.
91
"Sacramento and Placer Intelligence," Alta California, April 5, 1850, 3.
92
Contrata Don Fadeo Lavin y otros, December 19, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 135, fol. 140 144; vuelta-
Compañía Ynfante y Hermanos, Don Fadeo Lavin y otros, February 13, 1850, ARNAD, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 87, no. 34, vol. 24 vuelta-27.
93
Contrata Don Jorge E. Drew y otros, December 3, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 83, no. 543, fol. 553-54;
Contrata de enganche, Don José Maria Bañares y varios peones, December 20, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 86, no. 159, fol. 174 vuelta-176;
Contrata Don Ramon L. Toro y otros, Decem- ber 26, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 569, fol. 574 vuelta-575 vuelta.
94
Contrata Rosario y Viviana Donoso, April 4, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 222, fol. 231 vuelta-232.
Contrata Don Nico- las Cofre y otros, April 4, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 221, fol. 230 vuelta-231 vuelta.
95
Contrata José Herrera, con varios personas para California. December 30, 1850, arnad, Colección Notar- ial (Valparaíso), vol. 89, no. 256, fol. 309 vuelta-311.
96
Monaghan, 205-208.
El Mercurio de Valparaíso, December 31, 1849, also pub- lished in Monaghan
97
Compañia Don Fernando Niño y otros, May 29, 1850, arnad, Colección Notarial (Santiago), vol. 205, fol. 266-67 vuelta;
Compañia Don Fernando Niño y otro, May 30, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (San- tiago), vol. 205, fol. 270V-271V.
98
Fletamento, Eduardo Miller a Donjuán Thompson, July 20, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 84, no. 104, fol. 116 vuelta-i 18 vuelta.
99
Contrata segunda, Los Señores Ovalle Hermanos y otros, September 11, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 83, no. 450, fol. 458-59.
100
Declaración, Don Felipe Olguien a fabor de Don Manuel José Ubilla, November 12, 1849, Colección Notar- ial (Santiago), vol. 208, fol. 152 vuelta-153 vuelta.
101
Convenio, Don José Valencia, Feb. 22, 1850, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 86, no. 202, fol. 220-21;
Contrata de compañia, Don José Valencia a nombre y representación de su primo hermano Don Antonio Jesus Valencia con los mineros Fautino Lopez y otros, Feb. 22, 1850, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 86, no. 203, fol. 221-22 vuelta;
Contrata de compañia, Eugenio Araya y otros, Feb. 22, 1850, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 86, no. 204, fol. 222 vuelta-223 vuelta.
102
Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 90, nos. 1 17-19, fol. 140 vuelta-144 vuelta.
103
Compañia Don Pedro Fontecilla y los trabajadores Eugenio Plaza, Eugenio Montoya, y otros, January 2, 1852, ARNAD, Colección Notarial (Valparaiso), vol. 90, no. 382, fol. 459 vuelta-460 vuelta;
Compañia Eugenio Araya y los trabajadores Alejo, Ramon Gonzales y otros, January 2, 1852, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 90, fol. 461-62 vuelta;
Compañia Don Pedro del Carmen Valencia y otros, Jan- uary 2, 1852, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 96, no. 2, fol. 2-3 vuelta;
Compañia Don Pedro Fontecilla y los trabajadores Facundo Ydalgo, Paulino Servano, y otros, January 3, 1852, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 90, no. 384, fol. 463 vuelta-465;
Contrata Doña Dominga Araya y otros, January 28, 1852, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 96, no. 40, fol. 38 vuelta-39 vuelta;
Contrata Pedro Fuentesilla [Fontecilla?] y otros, January 28, 1852, arnad, Colección Notarial (Val- paraíso), vol. 96, no. 41, fol. 40-41 vuelta;
Contrata Pedro del Carmen Valencia y otros, January 28, 1852, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 96, no. 42, fol. 41 vuelta-43.
104
Alta California, March 5, 1852, 2.
105
Günther Peck, Reinventing Free Labor: Padrones and Immigrant Workers in the North American West, 1880-1930 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) .
106
Escritura de compañia, August i, 1849, arnad, Colección Notarial (Valparaíso), vol. 86, no. 65, fol. 71-74.
107
Pratncia Limerick, Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken rast of the American west, (New York: Norton, 1987), 26.
108
Steven Pitti, Devil in the Silicon Valley: Race, Mexican Americans, and Northern California (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003).
109
Howard Lamar, rrom bondage to Contract: Ethnic Labor in the American West, 1600-1890" in Steven Hahn and Jonathan Prude, eds., The Countryside in the Age of Capitalist Transformation (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 293-324.
110
Wal- ter Johnson, "On Agency," Journal of Social History 37, no. 1 (Fall 2003): 113-24.
111
Clyde A. Milner, Patricia Nelson Lim- erick, Charles E. Rankin, eds., Trails: Toward a New Western History (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991).
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