Notes

Notes
1
New York Herald, Oct. 28, 1871.
2
William R. Locklear, "The Celestials and the Angels: A Study of the Anti-Chinese Movement in Los Ange- les to 1882," The Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 42 (Mar. 1960): 240, 244.
3
Charles Nordhoff, "California for Health, Pleasure and Residence," in Nordhoff s West Coast: California, Ore- gon and Hawaii (1874; reprint, London: kpi Ltd., 1987), 90;
Otis Gibson, The Chinese in America (Cincin- nati: Hitchcock & Waiden, 1877), 106;
Hamilton Holt, ed., The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans as Told by Themselves (1006; reprint, New York: Routledge, 1990), 184.
4
Los Angeles Star, Jan. 24, 1857.
5
Los Angeles Star, Apr. 27, 1861.
6
Los Angeles Star, July 13, 1861;
Harris Newmark, Sixty Years in Southern California, 1853-1913 (1916;
4th ed., Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop, 1984), 298.
7
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 17, 1860, and Apr. 27, 1861.
8
Shih-shan Henry Tsai, The Chinese Experience in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 33;
Roger Daniels, Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988), 16;
Peter Kwong and Dušanka MiSčevič, Chinese America: The Untold Story of America's Oldest New Community (New York: The New Press, 2005), 42.
9
Kwong and Miščevič, Chinese America, 58-60.
10
Charles Morley, trans., "The Chinese in California, As Reported by Henryk Sienkiewicz," California His- torical Society Quarterly, 34 (Dec. 1055): 3 12-13.
11
Ludwig Louis Salvátor, Los Angeles in the Sunny Seventies: A Flower from the Golden Land (Marguerite Eyer Wilbur, trans.; Los Angeles: Bruce McCallister and Jake Zeitlin, 1020), 42.
12
Thomas W. Chinn, "New Chapters in Chinese-American History," California History, 57 (Spring 1978): 7.
13
Eng Ying Gong and Bruce Grant, Tong War! (New York: Nicholas L. Brown, 1930), 26.
14
People v. Ah Shaw, Con Wan et al., Feb. 5, 1872, Minute Book, 17th Judicial District Court, Los Angeles Area Court Records, Huntington Library (hereafter "laacr").
15
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 26, 1871.
16
Kwong and Miščevič, Chinese America, 11-12.
17
Joseph Mesmer, "Chinese in Los Angeles," Joseph Mesmer Papers, Department of Special Collections, Uni- versity of California, Los Angeles (hereafter "Mesmer Papers");
Newmark, Sixty Years in Southern Califor- nia, 123.
18
Sucheng Chan, Asian Americans: An Interpretive History (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991), 104;
George Anthony Peffer, If They Don't Bring Their Women Here: Chinese Female Immigration before Exclusion (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1000), 4.
19
Judy Yung, Gordon H. Chang, and Him Mark Lai, eds., Chinese American Voices: From the Gold Rush to the Present (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 20-21.
20
Thomas Allen McDannold, "Development of the Los Angeles Chinatown: 1850-1970" (M.A. diss., Cali- fornia State University, Northridge, 1973), 31.
21
Marco R. Newmark, "Calle de los Negros and the Chinese Massacre of 1871," The Historical Society of South- em California Quarterly, 26 (June-Sept. 1944): 98.
22
Newmark, Sixty Years in Southern California, 30-31;
Morrow Mayo, Los Angeles (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1933), 38;
Locklear, "The Celestials and the Angels," 249.
23
Carey McWilliams, Southern California Country: An Island on the Land (1946; reprint, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1970), 85-86.
24
Tsai, The Chinese Experience in America, 38.
25
Los Angeles News, July 1, 1870.
26
Los Angeles News, Aug. 24, 1870;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 4, 1870.
27
New York Times, Nov. io, 1871.
28
Morley, trans., "The Chinese in California," 307.
29
People v. Ah Lim [John Doe, Chinaman], Case No. 81, Nov. 12, 1870, Los Angeles County Justices Court, LAACR.
30
Los Angeles News, Dec. 25, 1870.
31
Los Angeles News, Oct. 11, 1871.
32
Los Angeles News, June 3, 1871, and June 4, 1871.
33
Him Mark Lai, "Historical Development of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association/Huigwan Sys* tern," Chinese America: History and Perspectives [1] (1987): 13-51;
Kwong and Miščevič, Chinese America, 83-85;
Günther Barth, Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1 850-1 870 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964), 77-81;
Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer, The Anti-Chinese Movement in Cal- ifornia (1939; reprint, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973), 23, 29.
34
Los Angeles News, Nov. 23, 1870, and July 19, 1871;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 25, 1870.
35
People v. Lee Fat, John Doe and Richard Roe, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Nov. 25, 1870, laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 23, 1870, and Nov. 25, 1870;
Los Angeles News, Nov. 23, 1870.
36
People v. James Ganahan, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Nov. 7, 1870, laacr.
37
Chan, Asian Americans, 67;
Benson Tong, Unsubmissive Women: Chinese Prostitutes in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994), 9-10;
Kwong and Miščevič, Chinese Amer- ica, 85;
Barth, Bitter Strength, 101-102.
38
Mary Roberts Coolidge, Chinese Immigration (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1909), 408.
39
Holt, The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans, 182.
40
Daily Evening Bulletin [San Francisco], Apr. 27, 1864.
41
Daily Evening Bulletin [San Francisco], May 18, 1868.
42
Yung, Chang, and Lai, eds., Chinese American Voices, 21.
43
Gibson, The Chinese in America, 143.
44
Tsai, The Chinese Experience in America, 54;
Daniels, Asian America, 26;
Chan, Asian Americans, 67;
Kwong and Miščevič, Chinese America, 86.
45
Lai, "Historical Development of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association/Huiguan System," 32.
46
Daily Evening Bulletin [San Francisco], Feb. 25, 1869.
47
People v. Sing Lee, Sam Yung, Sou Go and Yo Hing, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Shore et al.), Sept. 8, 1866, LAACR.
48
Los Angeles News, Feb. 23, 1872.
49
Daily Evening Bulletin [San Francisco], July 20, 1869.
50
Lucie Cheng and Suellen Cheng, "Chinese Women of Los Angeles, A Social Historical Survey," in Link' ing Our Lives: Chinese American Women of Los Angeles (Los Angeles: Chinese Historical Society of South- ern California, 1984), 7.
51
Cheng and Cheng, "Chinese Women of Los Angeles," 4-5;
Huping Ling, Surviving on the Gold Mountain: A History of Chinese American Women and Their Lives (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998), 53;
Peffer, If They Don't Bring Their Women Here, 88-91;
Kwong and Miščevič, Chinese America, 98;
Judy Yung, Chinese Women of America: A Pictorial History (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986), 15;
Huping Ling, "Chinese Merchant Wives in the United States, 1840-1945," in Origins and Destinations: 41 Essays on Chinese America (Los Angeles: Chinese Historical Society of Southern California, 1994), 79.
52
United States Ninth Census (1870),
Wing Chung Co. v. Los Angeles City, Case No. 1941, June 22, 1872, 17th Judicial District Court, Civil Cases, laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 10, 1871, and Oct. 9, 1871;
Los Angeles News, Feb. 18, 1872, Feb. 27, 1872, and Apr. 7, 1872.
53
People v. Ah Son, Wah Hing and Ah Shoah, Case No. 136, Feb. 8, 1873, Los Angeles County Justices Court, LAACR.
54
Morley, trans., "The Chinese in California," 307.
55
Cheng and Cheng, "Chinese Women of Los Angeles," 7;
Peffer, If They Don't Bring Their Women Here, 91.
56
Case Nos. 610, 611, 614, 615, 616 and 646, Nov. 8, 1862, Court of Sessions, Los Angeles Criminal Cases, laacr;
Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Shore et al.), Mar. 12, 1864, and Sept. 8, 1866, laacr.
57
Lucie Cheng Hirata, "Free, Indentured, Enslaved: Chinese Prostitutes in Nineteenth-Century America," Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 5 (Autumn 1979): 4-9;
Lucie Cheng Hirata, "Chinese Immigrant Women in Nineteenth-Century California," in Carol Ruth Berkin and Mary Beth Norton, eds., Women of America: A History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1979), 220-30.
58
Albert S. Evans, À la California: Sketches of Life in the Golden State (San Francisco: A. L. Bancroft & Co., 1873), 284-85.
59
Gibson, The Chinese in America, 134.
60
Cheng and Cheng, "Chinese Women of Los Angeles," 7;
Ling, Surviving on the Gold Mountain, 49, 61;
Judy Yung, Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of Califor- nia Press, 1995), 28;
Ling, "Chinese Merchant Wives in the United States," 83.
61
Hirata, "Free, Indentured, Enslaved," 19.
62
Los Angeles News, Dec. 24, 1870.
63
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 1, 1870;
Los Angeles News, Oct. 28, 1870, and Dec. 24, 1870.
64
Los Angeles Star, Aug. 26, 1870;
Los Angeles News, Aug. 26, 1870.
65
People v. Sing Yu, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Aug. 25, 1870, laacr.
66
Sing Lee v. Ah Chu, Ah Gung and Juan Espinosa, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Aug. 27, 1870, laacr.
67
Los Angeles News, Oct. 28, 1870.
68
Los Angeles News, Oct. 16, 1870, and Nov. 1, 1870;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 1, 1870.
69
Los Angeles News, Nov. 1, 1870.
70
Los Angeles Tri-Weekly News, May 30, 1865, and June 13, 1865.
71
People v. Joseph F. Dye, Case No. 1006, Feb. 23, 1871, 17th Judicial District Court, Criminal Cases, laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 1, 1870, and Nov. 2, 1870;
Los Angeles News, Nov. 1, 1870, and Nov. 2, 1870;
New- mark, Sixty Years in Southern California, 418.
72
Los Angeles News, Nov. 6, 1870.
73
Los Angeles Star, Dec. 23, 1870, Dec. 24, 1870, and Oct. 27, 1871 (testimony of George M. Fall);
Los Ange- les News, Dec. 23, 1870, and Dec. 24, 1870.
Lang Yu, Ah Hing, and Ah Yew. Los Angeles News, Dec. 24, 1870.
74
People v. Lee Woo, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Dec. 8, 1870, laacr;
Los Angeles News, Dec. 11, 1870.
75
Los Angeles News, Dec. 24, 1870.
76
id.
77
Hirata, "Free, Indentured, Enslaved," 19-20;
Tong, Unsubmissive Women, 151.
78
Yung, Chang, and Lai, eds., Chinese American Voices, 21.
79
Los Angeles News, Mar. 9, 1871.
80
Los Angeles News, Dec. 24, 1870, Mar. 10, 1871, and May 6, 1871.
81
Los Angeles News, Mar. 30, 1872.
82
Evans, À la California, 246.
83
Gibson, The Chinese in America, 77.
84
Los Angeles Semi-Weekly News, Feb. 16, 1866.
85
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, in The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft (39 vols.; San Francisco: The History Co., 1800), XXIV, 336.
86
J. M. Guinn, A History of California and an Extended History of Its Southern Coast Counties (2 vols.; Los Ange- les: Historic Record Co., 1007), I, 232.
87
R. David Arkush and Leo O. Lee, trans, and eds., Land Without Ghosts: Chinese Impressions of America from the Mid-Nineteenth Century to the Present (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 32, 38.
88
Holt, The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans, 183-84.
89
Kwong, and Miščevič, Chinese America, 15-16.
90
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 9, 1872.
91
Nordhoff, "California for Health, Pleasure and Residence," 90.
92
id. at 85.
93
Robert W. Blew, "Vigilantism in Los Angeles, 1835-1874," Southern California Quarterly, 54 (Spring 1972): 12;
Frances Lomas Feldman, "Human Services in the City of Angels," Southern California Quarterly, 85 (Summer 2003): 152;
J. J. Warner, Benjamin Hayes, and Joseph P. Widney, An Historical Sketch of Los Angeles Counts, California (1876; reprint, Los Angeles: O. W. Smith, 1936), 124.
94
Eric Monkkonen, "Western Homicide: The Case of Los Angeles, 1830-1870," Pacific Historical Review, 74 (Nov. 2005): 609;
Eric H. Monkkonen, "Homicide in Los Angeles, 1827-2002," Journal of lnterdisdplinary History, 36 (Autumn 2005): 172.
95
Kevin Starr, California: A History (New York: The Modern Library, 2005), 84-85.
96
Willard, The Herald's History of Los Angeles City, 280.
97
Locklear, "The Celestials and the Angels," 241.
98
Los Angeles Star, Маг. 6, 1864.
99
"Los Angeles News, Jan. 4, 1869, Jan. 22, 1869, Mar. 19, 1869, Apr. 1, 1869, Apr. 13, 1869, Apr. 28, 1869, May 13, 1869, May 21, 1869, May 28, 1869, June 23, 1869, July 21, 1869, July 27, 1869, Sept. 9, 1869, May 2, 1870, June 11, 1870, July 9, 1870, Nov. 17, 1870, and Dec. 24, 1870;
Newmark, Sixty Years in Southern Cal- ifornia, 380.
100
Los Angeles News, Oct. 12, 1869.
101
Los Angeles News, May 21, 1869.
102
Los Angeles News, Sept. 15, 1869.
103
Remi Nadeau, City-Makers: The Story of Southern California's First Boom, 1868-76 (Los Angeles: Trans- Anglo Boob, 1965), 35-40;
Locklear, "The Celestials and the Angels," 244.
104
Nordhoff, "California for Health, Pleasure and Residence," 90;
Gibson, The Chinese in America, 107.
105
Sandmeyer, The Anti-Chinese Movement in California, 45-47-
106
Los Angeles News, Nov. 17, 1870, and Dec. 24, 1870.
107
The Evening Express [Los Angeles], Sept. 5, 1871.
108
Los Angeles News. Sept. 24. 1870.
109
Los Angeles Star, July 26. 1871.
110
Los Angeles Star, May 28, 1871;
Los Angeles News, May 28, 1871.
111
Los Angeles News, Oct. 22, 1870.
112
Los Angeles Star, June 17, 1871.
113
Los Angeles News, July 27, 1870.
114
Los Angeles News, June 16, 1871 .
115
Los Angeles News, July 20, 18.71.
116
Los Angeles Star, Apr. 27, 1871.
117
Los Angeles News, Aug. 3,1871.
118
Los Angeles News, Oct. 8, 1871.
119
Willard, The Herald's History of Los Angeles City, 286.
120
Los Angeles News, June 22, 1871.
121
Los Angeles News, July 20, 1871.
122
People v. John Doe, a Chinaman, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Oct. 19, 1871, laacr;
Los Angeles News, Oct. 18, 1871;
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 21, 1871.
123
Los Angeles News, Dec. 8, 1870.
124
Los Angeles News, Feb. 12, 1870.
125
Los Angeles News, Feb. 9, 1871.
126
Los Angeles News, Mar. 3, 1870.
127
Los Angeles News, Apr. 24, 1870.
128
People v. Ah Soi, Ah Han, Ah Yee, Yo Hing, Ah Yung and Sam Yung, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Still/Gray), May 4, 1868, laacr.
129
People v. Sam Yung, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Still/Grav), Mav 7. 1868. laacr.
130
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 30, 1871
131
Lai, "Historical Development of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association/Huijeuan System," 17.
132
Aita California [San Francisco], Mar. 11, 1871.
133
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 10, 1871.
134
Emma Woo Louie, Chinese American Names: Tradition and Transition (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., Inc., 1998), 126.
135
J. A. Graves, My Seventy Years in California, 1857-1927 (Los Angeles: The Times-Mirror Press, 1027), 275.
136
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 15, 1871, and Oct. 30, 1871.
137
Horace Bell, On the Old West Coast (ed. Lanier Bartlett; New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1040), 170, 177.
138
С P. Dorland, "Chinese Massacre at Los Angeles in 1871," Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California, 3 (1894): 22.
139
People v. Wong Chu Shut, testimony, Sept. 27, 1877, 17th Judicial District Court, Richard Courtney Col- lection, Huntington Library;
Los Angeles Star, May 15, 1877, and May 19, 1877;
Graves, My Seventy Years in California, 275-79;
Bell, On the Old West Coast, 177.
140
Los Angeles News, May 6, 1871.
141
"managers of the Sam Up [See Yup] and Ling Yung [Nin Yung] companies." Los Angeles News, Feb. 25, 1872.
Wing Chung Co. v. Los Ange- les City, Case No. 1941, June 22, 1872,
Yup Company . . . had nothing whatever to do with the riot of the 24th of October." Los Angeles Star, Feb. 24, 1872.
Los Ange- les Star, Sept. 6, 1873.
142
Wing Chung Co. v. Los Angeles City, Case No. 1941, June 22, 1872, 17th Judicial District Court, Civil Cases, LAACR.
143
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 30, 1871.
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 31, 1871.
144
San Bernardino Guardian, Nov. 5, 1870, and Nov. 26, 1870;
Los Angeles News, Nov. 10, 1870;
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 31, 1871
Ex parte Ah Cha, 40 California Reports 426 (1870).
Los Angeles Star, Dec. 24, 1870.
145
San Bernardino Guardian, Nov. 26, 1870.
146
Alta California [San Francisco], Nov. 12, 1870;
Daily Evening Bulletin [San Francisco], Nov. 12, 1870.
147
New York Times, Nov. 13. 1870.
148
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 10, 1870, Nov. 30, 1870, and Mar. io, 1871;
Los Angeles News, Nov. 10, 1870, Nov. 13, 1870, Nov. 29, 1870, and Nov. 30, 1870.
149
Lay Yee v. Wong Hing, Case No. 1765, Jan. 23, 1871, 17th Judicial District Court, Civil Cases, laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Jan. 24, 1871, Jan. 26, 1871, and Mar. 10, 1871;
Alta California [San Francisco], Mar. 11, 1871.
150
People v. Choo Chee and Gi On, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Mar. 4, 1871, laacr;
Los Angeles News, Mar. 5, 1871.
151
People v. Lae Yu, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Mar. 9, 1871, laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 11, 1871;
Aíta California [San Francisco], Mar. 11, 1871.
152
Yo Hing v. Sam Gut Gee, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Mar. 11, 1871, laacr;
Los Angeles News, Mar. 12, 1871.
153
Lee Yong (groom) and Yut Ho (bride), Mar. 3, 1871,
Dorland, "Chinese Massacre at Los Angeles in 1871," 22.
154
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 8, 1871.
155
In the Matter of Ute How, Minutes, County Court, Mar. 7, 1871, laacr;
People v. Yo Hing et al., Mar. 8, 1871, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Маг. 8, 1871, and Mar. 9, 1871;
Los Angeles News, Mar. 9, 1871.
156
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 8, 1871, and Mar. io, 1871.
157
Los Angeles News, Mar. 8, 1871.
158
John Tambolin (groom) and Ah Qu (bride), Nov. 19, 1862,
Oh Moy (groom) and Ah Foy (bride), May 7, 1868,
159
Ah Chun (groom) and Sy Ku (bride), Oct. 3, 1871;
Ah Kit (groom) and Sung Kum (bride), Oct. 20, 1871;
Ah Sum (groom) and Hon Que (bride), Nov. 15, 1871;
One Za (groom) and Sing Нее (bride), Feb. 22, 1872,
160
Los Angeles News, Feb. 23, 1872.
161
Los Angeles Star, Mar. io, 1871.
162
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 15, 1871.
163
Aita California [San Francisco], Mar. 11, 1871.
164
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 10, 1871.
165
Los Angeles News, Apr. 21, 1871.
166
Wing Chung Co. v. Los Angeles City, Case No. 1941 , June 22, 1872, 17th Judicial District Court, laacr (tes timony of Jesus Bilderrain).
167
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 24, 1871;
Dorland, "Chinese Massacre at Los Angeles in 1871," 23.
168
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 31, 1871.
169
Sam Yuen countered that the trouble was "not about rented premises alone." Los Angeles Star, Oct. 30, 1871, and Oct. 31, 1871.
170
People v. Ah Choy and four other Chinamen, and People v. Yo Hing, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Oct. 23, 1871, laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 24, 1871;
Los Angeles News, Oct. 24, 1871.
171
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 31, 1871.
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 30, 1871, and Nov. 1, 1871
People v. Yo Hing et al., Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Oct. 27, 1871, laacr
Alta California [San Francisco], Nov. 4, 1871;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 6, 1871 .
Alta California [San Francisco], Dec. 6, 1871.
172
Wing Chung Co. v. Los Angeles City, Case No. 1941, June 22, 1872,
Los Angeles News, Oct. 26, 1871
Bell, On the Old West Coast, 171 , 176.
Los Angeles News, Oct. 25, 1871;
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 26, 1871.
Norton B. Stern and William M. Kramer, "Emil Harris: Los Angeles Jewish Police Chief," The Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 55 (Summer 1973): 164;
William B. Secrest, Lawmen & Desperadoes: A Compendium of Noted, Early California Peace Officers, Badmen and Outlaws (Spokane: The Arthur H. Clark Co., 1994), 162-63
173
Los Angeles News, Oct. 28, 1871
People v. Richard Kerren, Case No. 1101, Jan. 5, 1872,
174
Los Angeles News, Oct. 29, 1871
175
In the Matter of the Estate of Robert Thompson, Minutes, Los Angeles County Probate Court, Nov. 20, 1871, LAACR.
176
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 27, 1871
177
Mesmer, "Massacre of Chinese," Mesmer Papers.
178
Paul M. De Falla, "Lantern in the Western Sky," The Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 42 (Mar. i960): 57-88 (Part I) and 42 (June 1960): 161-85 (Part II).
R. M. Widney, "Chinese Riot and Massacre in Los Angeles," The Grizzly Bear, Jan. 192 1, 3-4, 22 (also published in Los Angeles Examiner, Sept. 7, 1924);
James Franklin Burns, "James Franklin Burns, Pioneer," The Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly, 32 (Mar. 1950): 6 1-66;
Mesmer, "Massacre of Chinamen in 1871" and "Massacre of Chinese," Mesmer Papers. The massacre is discussed in the context of Los Angeles vigilantism in Paul R. Spitzzeri, "Judge Lynch in Session: Popular Justice in Los Angeles, 1850-1875," Southern California Quarterly, 87 (Summer 2005), 105-11.
179
Los Angeles News, Oct. 26, 1871.
180
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 26, 1871.
181
Mesmer, "Massacre of Chinese," Mesmer Papers.
182
Newspaper clipping dated Nov. 4, 1871, Robert Maclay Widney, "Scrapbook and Folder of Miscellaneous Items," 11-12,
183
Los Angeles News, Oct. 29, 1871
184
New York Times, Nov. io, 1871.
185
People v. Sam Yuen et al, Case No. 1164, Nov. 19, 1872, 17th Judicial District Court, Criminal Cases, laacr.
186
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 27, 1871
187
id.
188
Los Angeles News, Oct. 27, 1871
189
id.
190
Los Angeles News, Oct. 20, 1871
191
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 27, 1871
192
Los Angeles News, Oct. 26, 1871.
193
De Falla, "Lantern in the Western Sky," Part II, 162.
Yo Hing." Los Ange- les Daily News, Oct. 28, 1871.
194
Los Angeles News, Oct. 31, 1871.
195
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 26, 1871
Yo Hing said, "Only three or four bad China- men were killed. The rest were good people." Los Angeles Star, Oct. 30, 1871.
196
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 27, 1871.
197
Common Council Records, Nov. 16, 1871, Los Angeles City Archives;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 18, 1871, and Nov. 20, 1871.
Common Council Records, Nov. 23, 1871, and Dec. 7, 1871, Los Angeles City Archives.
198
People v. A. F. Coronel, Case No. 1168, Dec. 10, 1872, Los Angeles County Court, Criminal Cases, laacr.
199
Los Angeles News, Oct. 29, 1871 .
200
San Francisco Chronicle, Oct. 26, 1871;
New York Herald, Oct. 26, 1871.
201
People v. Adolfo Celis, Case No. 946, May 11, 1870, 17th Judicial District Court, Criminal Cases, laacr;
Los Angeles Daily News, Mar. 13, 1870.
202
Alta California [San Francisco], Feb. 19, 1872;
Los Angeles News, Feb. 20, 1872.
203
People v. Andres Saur [sic; Soeur], Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Still/Gray), Nov. 13, 1867, laacr;
People v. Patrick McDonald, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), June 26, 1871, laacr.
204
People v. Jesus Martinez, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Still/Gray), Jan. 6, 1868, laacr.
205
Los Angeles Star, May 18, 1871
People v. Lewis Mendel, Case No. 1048, Sept. 23, 1871, Criminal Cases, laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 6, 1871
People v. Esteben Antonio Alvarado, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Feb. 12, 1872, laacr.
206
Locklear, "The Celestials and the Angels," 244-45.
207
Mesmer, "Massacre of Chinese," Mesmer Papers.
208
Common Council Records, Mar. 5, 1866, Los Angeles City Archives.
209
Los Angeles News, Oct. 27, 1871.
210
Act of Mar. 16, 1863, ch. 68, § 1, [1863] Cal. Stats. 6o;
J. A. C. Grant, "Testimonial Exclusion Because of Race: A Chapter in the History of Intolerance in California," ucla Law Review, 17 (Nov. i960): 197.
211
De Falla, "Lantern in the Western Sky," Part II, 170-71.
212
Bancroft, History of California, XXIV, 342.
213
Nordhoff, "California for Health, Pleasure and Residence," 139.
214
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 28, 1871
215
Newmark, Sixty Years in Southern California, 434.
216
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 26, 1871
217
Alta California [San Francisco], Oct. 26, 1871.
218
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 27, 1871.
219
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 27, 1871
Los Angeles News, Oct. 29, 1871
220
Los Angeles News, Oct. 27, 1871
221
Bell, On the Old West Coast, 172, 175.
222
Alta California [San Francisco], Mar. 31, 1872.
223
People v. L. M. Mendel et al., Case No. 1084, Dec . 2, 1871, 17th Judicial District Court, Criminal Cases, LAACR.
224
Los Angeles News, Dec. 3, 1871.
Saow (originally indicted as Ah Shaw). Minutes, 17th Judicial District Court, Feb. 5, 1872, and Feb. 14, 1872, laacr;
Los Angeles News, Feb. 15, 1872;
Alta California [San Francisco], Feb. 16, 1872.
225
Minutes, 17th Judicial District Court, Feb. 17, 1872, Mar. 27, 1872, and Mar. 30, 1872, laacr;
Alta Cali- fornia [San Francisco], Feb. 19, 1872, and Mar. 31, 1872;
Los Angeles Star, Mar. 28, 1872.
226
People v. Crenshaw, 46 California Reports 66 (1873).
Alta California [San Francisco], Mar. 28, 1872.
227
Ah Mouie v. James F. Bums and Frank]. Carpenter, Case No. 18 14, May 18, 1871, 17th Judicial District Court, Civil Cases, laacr.
Ah Mouie v. Samuel B. Caswell and Phineas Banning, Case No. 2219, Apr. 25, 1873, 17th Judicial District Court, Civil Cases, laacr.
Samuel В . Caswett and Phineas Banning v . John G . Nichols , John Wilson and Lay Yee, Case No. 2271 , July 30, 1873, 17th Judicial District Court, Civil Cases, laacr.
Thorn & Ross v. Wong Hing and Ah Mouie, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Trafford), July 11, 1873, laacr.
228
People v. Yo Hing, Nov. 2, 1871, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 4, 1871.
Yo Hing was charged but later released. Alto California [San Francisco], Dec. 6, 1871.
229
Los Angeles Star, Oct. 26, 1871;
Los Angeles News, Oct. 26, 1871.
230
Los Angeles News, Feb. 15, 1872;
Alto California [San Francisco], Feb. 16, 1872.
231
Arkush and Lee, trans, and eds., Land Without Ghosts, 48.
232
Widney, "Scrapbook and Folder of Miscellaneous Items," 12;
Boyle Workman, The City That Grew (Los Angeles: The Southland Publishing Co., 1936), 148.
233
Wing Chung Co. v. Los Angeles City, Minutes, 17th Judicial District Court, June 3, 1872, laacr.
234
Wing Chung v. Los Angeles, 47 California Reports 53 1 (1874).
235
Alta California [San Francisco], Nov. 10, 1871;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 20, 1871.
236
Alta California [San Francisco], Feb. 10, 1872.
237
Ah Sum (groom) and Hon Que (bride), Nov. 15, 1871, Marriage Records, Los Angeles County Registrar's Office;
Los Angeles Star, Nov. 16, 1871;
Los Angeles News, Nov. 16, 1871.
238
One Za (groom) and Sing Нее (bride), Feb. 22, 1872, Marriage Records, Los Angeles County Registrar's Office;
Los Angeles News, Feb. 23, 1872, and Feb. 25, 1872;
Los Angeles Star, Feb. 24, 1872, and Feb. 27, 1872.
239
People v. Ah Yan and Ah Yu, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Apr. 6, 1872, laacr;
Los Angeles News, Apr. 7, 1872.
240
People v. Tung Cy and Ah Kong, Case No. 160, Sept. 3, 1873, Los Angeles County Justices Court, laacr;
Los Angeles Star, Sept. 4, 1873.
241
Bell, On the Oíd West Coast, 176, 323.
242
Ah Chu v. Fong Chang, Minutes, Minutes, Justice of the Peace (Gray), Oct. 9, 1872, laacr;
Horace Bell, On the Old West Coast, 170.
243
Los Angeles Star, Feb. 27, 1872.
244
Los Angeles News, Apr. 30, 1872.
245
Los Angeles Star, Aug. 6, 1872;
Los Angeles News, Aug. 8, 1872.
246
Blew, "Vigilantism in Los Angeles," 25.
Spitzzeri, "Judge Lynch in Session," 111-13.
247
Los Angeles Star, Oct. яо, 1871.
248
Locklear, "The Celestials and the Ansels " 244-46.
249
Salvator, Los Angeles in the Sunny Seventies, 43.
250
Locklear, "The Celestials and the Angels," 248-49.
251
Id. at 253.
252
Aita California [San Francisco], Oct. 26, 1871.
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