Notes

Notes
1
Kenneth C. Adams, ed., California Highways and Public Works: Centennial Edition (Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1950), inside cover.
3
Margaret Talev, "Old Desk Gets a Front-Row Seat to More History," Sacramento Bee, June 28, 2004.
6
Howard larvis, I'm Mad as Hell (New York: Times Books, 1979), 230.
8
Earl Warren, "Address to the Legislative Joint Interim Committee on Constitutional Revision and its Advi- sory Committees, October 29, 1947," in Henry M. Christman, ed., The Public Papers of Chief Justice Earl Warren (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1959), 9-10.
9
References on the history of American road building include Tom Lewis, Divided Highways (New York: Pen- guin Books, 1997);
Mark H. Rose, Interstate: Express Highway Politics, 1939-1989, rev. ed. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990);
James A. Dunn Jr., Driving Forces: The Automobile, Its Enemies, and the Politics of Mobility (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1998);
James A. Dunn Jr., Miles to Go: European and American Transportation Policies (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981);
Bruce E. Seely, Builď- ing the American Highway System: Engineers as Policy Makers (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987);
James J. Flink, The Car Culture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1975);
Janet F. Davidson and Michael S. Sweeney, On the Move: Transportation and the American Story (Washington, DC: National Geo- graphic, 2003);
Russell Bourne, Americans on the Move: A History of Waterways, Railways, and Highways (Golden, CO: Fulcrum, 1995);
Dan McNichol, The Incredible Story of the U.S. Interstate System (New York: Barnes & Noble, 2003);
U.S. Department of Transportation, America's Highways: 1776-1976 (Washing- ton, DC: GPO, 1976);
John L. Butler, First Highways of America (lola, WI: Krause, 1994).
10
U.S. Depart- ment of Transportation, America's Highways, 83-84.
11
AASHTO 1914-1989: Moving America into the Future (Washington, DC: aashto, 1990), 13.
American Association of State Highway Officials, aasho, The First Fifty Years, 1914-1964 (Washington, DC: aasho, 1965).
12
Tom Turner and John Sparks, The Sprit of the Road: One Hundred Years of the California State Automobile Association (San Francisco: VIA Books, 2000);
Kathy Talley-Jones and Letitia Bums O'Connor, The Road Ahead: The Automobile Club of Southern California, 1900-2000 (Los Angeles: ACSA, 2000).
14
Charles L. Dearing and Wilfred Owen, National Transportation Policy (Washington, DC: Brookings Institu- tion, 1949), 109, 420.
15
Roger Biles, A New Deal for the American People (Dekalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 1991), 98-104.
16
Frederick E. Hosen, ed., The Great Depression and the New Deal: Legislative Acts in Their Entirety (1 932-1 933) and Sta- tistical Economic Data (1926-1946) (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1992), 278.
17
William E. Leuchtenberg, The FDR Years: On Roosevelt and His Legacy (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), 259.
18
U.S. Federal Works Agency, Final Report on the wpa Program: 1935-43 (Washington, DC: gpo, 1947), 126-27, 135-
19
Dearing and Owen, National Transportation Policy, 109, 420.
20
Finia Goff Crawford, Motor Fuel Taxation in the United States (Syracuse, NY: Self-published, 1939), 3.
21
Philip H. Burch, Jr., Highway Revenue and Expenditure Policy in the United States (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1962), 37.
22
David W. Jones, "California Freeway Era in Historical Perspective, research report ucb-its-rr-89-16, Insti- tute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1989, 167-80.
23
David Brodsly, L.A. Freeway: An Appreciation (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1981), 96-115.
24
U.S. House of Representatives, Toll Roads and Free Roads: Message from the President of the United States (Washington, DC: gpo, 1939);
U.S. House of Representatives, Interregional Highways: Message from the President of the United States (Washington, DC: gpo, 1944).
25
Jonathan Lewis Gifford, "An Analysis of the Federal Role in the Planning, Design and Deployment of Rural Roads, Toll Roads, and Urban Freeways" (PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1983), 113-41.
27
W. Lee Mertz, "Origins of the Interstate," on the website of the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, www.fhwa.dot.gov/intrastructure/origin.pdf.
28
William Buchanan, Legislative Partisanship: The Deviant Case of California (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Uni- versity of California Press, 1963), 30.
29
"The Vote against Freeways," Los Angeles Times, June 12, 1947, a4-
30
Richard H. Wilson, Highway Progress Since 1943, in Adams, California Highways and Pubulic works, 135
31
Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974).
32
Fred J. Grumm, "California's Plan for Freeways in Metropolitan Areas," Civil Engineering 11 (October1941): 560-72.
33
Brodsly, L.A. Freeway, 96-115.
34
Eugene P. Dvorin and Arthur J. Misner, Introduction to California Government, 2nd ed. (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1969), 56-58.
35
"Smog Will Not Vanish in a Day," Los Angeles Times, June 12, 1947, M-
"Governor Signs Anti-Smog Bill," Los Angeles Times, June 11, 1947, 1.
36
David W. Jones, "California's Freeway Era in Historical Perspective," ucb-its-rr-89-16, Institute of Trans- portation Studies, UC Berkeley, 1989, 112-36.
"Transit Lines with Free- ways Urged in Report," Los Angeies Times, August 16, 1947, 8.
37
Carey McWilliams, "Look What's Happened to California" reproduced in David Farrelly and Ivan Hinder- aker, eds., The Politics of California: A Book of Readings (New York: Ronald Press, 1951), 22.
38
Scott L. Bottles, Los Angeles and the Automobile: The Making of a Modern City (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987), 211-35.
40
Citizens' Tax Committee, Report of the Citizens' Tax Committee (Sacramento: Calif. State Printing Office, 1943).
41
"Sacramento News: Project Proposal Vetoed," Los Angeles Times, June 2, 1947, B2.
42
Passage of this bill, which provided revenues to local governments and districts, is described in Oliver J. Carter, "A Leader in the California Senate and the Democratic Party, 1 940-1 950," Earl Warren Oral His- tory Project, 1979.
43
Wolfgang S. Homburger, "Harmer E. Davis, Founder of the Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engi- neering," ucB-iTS-Misc-97-i, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley, 1997, 91.
44
Herbert L. Phillips, "Governor Gets $91,000,000 Highway Measure," Sacramento Bee, June 21, 1947.
45
Herbert L. Phillips, Big Wayward Girl: An Informal Political History of California (Garden City, NY: Double- day & Co., 1968), 115.
46
Earl Warren Oral History Project, Bee Perspectives of the Warren Era, 1976, interview with Herbert L. Phillips, 72.
47
Earl Warren Oral History Project, Conversations with Earl Warren on California Government, 1982, interviews conducted in 1971 and 1972.
48
Chester G. Hanson, "Battle on Road Bills Impends at Special Session," Los Angeles Times, March 4, 1947, 1,6.
49
С. Н. Purcell, "The State Looks at the Current Highway Situation," address to the Cali- fornia Chamber of Commerce, December 4, 1946.
Harrison R. Baker Collection, California State Archives, F3778:14o.
50
California State Senate, "The Legislature Takes a Look at California Highway Needs" and Other Addresses by Senator Randolph Collier (Sacramento: California State Printing Office, 1947).
51
Bertram H. Lindman, A Proposed System of Highway Financing for the State of California (Sacramento: Cali- fornia State Printing Office, 1946).
52
Warren quoted in Chester G. Hanson, "Move to Delay Action on Highway Bill Fails," Los Angeles Times, March 5, 1947, 1, 7.
54
Warren quoted in Chester G. Hanson, "Warren Sounds Calls for Era of Progress," Los Angeles Times, Janu- ary 7, 1947, 1-2.
55
Warren quoted in Chester O. Hanson, "Gas Tax Boost Seen for State," Los Angeles Times, January 14, 1947, 1-2.
Warren quoted in Chester G. Hanson, Boost in Gaso- line Tax Again Urged by Warren," Los Angeles Times, May 24, 1947, 2.
56
Chester G. Hanson, "Move to Cripple Huge Road Program Charged," Los Angeles Times, January 15, 1947, 2.
57
Beach Vasey to Warren, memo of December 9, 1946, Earl Warren Collection, California State Archives, F3640: 8396.
58
Files of Harrison R. Baker, member, California Highway Commission, California State Archives, "History of the Collier- Burns Highway Act of the 1947 (Extraordinary) Session," lp229:12.
59
Zettel was profiled upon his retirement from UC Berkeley in Wolfgang S. Homburger, "Harmer E. Davis," miscellaneous report ucb-its-misc-97-i, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1997, Appendix H, 138.
60
Let's Try a 5-Cent Gasohne Tax," editorial, Los Angeles Times, February 26, 1947.
Philip Taft, Labor Politics American Style: The California Federation of Labor (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968).
61
A chronology of the legislative history of Collier-Burns can be found in Jeffrey Richard Brown, "Trapped in the Past: The Gas Tax and Highway Finance," (master's thesis, Dept. of Urban Planning, UCLA, 1998), pp. 171-233;
Wesley Duncan Vail, "The Legislative History of the Collier-Burns Highway Act of 1947," (master's thesis, Dept. of History, Stanford University, 1955).
Nelson C. Price, Digest of Testi' mony and Reports Considered in Enacting the Collier-Bums Highway Act of 1947 (Sacramento: California State Legislature, 1949).
62
Brown, "Trapped in the Past," 228.
63
Herbert L. Phillips, "Joint Action Is Urged On Highway Bill," Sacramento Bee, May 5, 1947.
64
Herbert L. Phillips, "Highway Tax Issue May Go Over to 1948," Sacramento Bee, April 12, 1947.
65
Herbert L. Phillips, "Future Action on Road Bill is Uncertain," Sacramento Bee, April 9, 1947.
66
Brown, "Trapped in the Past," pp. 229-30,
Herbert L. Phillips, "House Passes Badly Battered Highway Bill," Sacramento Bee, April 8, 1947.
67
Earl Warren, The Memoirs of Chief Justice Earl Warren (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977), 207-8.
68
Herbert L. Phillips, "Assembly Tax, Road Bills Go to Senate," Sacramento Bee, June 13, 1947;
Herbert L. Phillips, "Senate May Insist on 11/2 Cent Gas Tax," Sacramento Bee, June 11, 1947.
69
Ralph Dills quoted in Herbert L. Phillips, "Governor Gets $91,000,000 Highway Measure," Sacramento Bee, June 21, 1947.
70
Chester Gannon quoted in Herbert L. Phillips, "House Passes Badly Battered Highway Bill," Sacramento Bee, April 8, 1947.
71
Warren, Memoirs, 208-9.
72
Legislation Provides $76,000,000 Annually for New Construction on California State Highway System," California Highways and Public Works 25 (July-August 1947): 1-2, 7, 26.
73
Warren quoted in Chester G. Hanson, "Highway Bill Sent Warren for Signature," Los Angeles Times, June 22, 1947, 1,7.
74
Richard R. Mathison, Three Cars in Every Garage: A Motorist's History of the Automobile and the Automobile Club in Southern California (Garden Citv. NY: Doubledav & Co.. 1068). 215.
75
Hayley Chouinard and Jeffrey M. Perloff, "Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes," Dept. of Agri- cultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkeley, Working Paper 952, 2003.
76
Randolph Collier files in California State Archives,
77
Randolph Collier files in California State Archives, lp229:12.
78
Buchanan, Legislative Partisanship, 33.
79
G. Edward White, Earl Warren: A Public Life (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 21-22.
80
Warren quoted in Chester G. Hanson, "Warren Blasts Gas Price Rise," Los Angeles Times, March 20, 1947, 1,8.
81
Herbert L. Phillips, "Week Brings Little Progress on Road Bill," Sacramento Bee, April 5, 1947.
Warren, Memoir, 208.
82
Irving Stone, Earl Warren: A Great American Story (New York: Prentice Hall, 1948), 145-46.
83
Ed Cray, Chief Justice: A Biography of Earl Warren (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997), 140-41.
84
Jack Harrison Pollack, Earl Warren: The Judge Who Changed America (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1979), 77-
85
San Francisco News, appears in Dean R. Cresap, Party Politics in the Golden State (Los Angeles: Haynes Foundation, 1954), 107.
86
Warren, Memoir, 249-50.
87
Cray, Chief Justice, 227, 390.
88
Martin Wachs, "A Dozen Reasons for Raising Gasoline Taxes," Institute of Transportation Studies, Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, Working Paper ucb-its-rr-2003-i, 2003;
Pietro S. Nivola and Robert W. Crandall, The Extra Mile: Rethinking Energy Policy for Automotive Transport (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1995), 48-50.
89
Gilbert Estrada, "If You Build It, They Will Move: The Los Angeles Freeway System and the Displacement of Mexican East Los Angeles," Southern Califor- nia Quarterly 87 (Fall 2005): 287-315, especially 309.
90
Charles L. Deanng, American Highway Policy (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1941), 176-82.
91
Brown, "Trapped in the Past," 96.
92
Homburger, "Harmer E. Davis," 115.
93
California Dept. of Transportation, "Highway Recollections of James E. Roberts," oral history interview, Caltrans, 1999, 7.
94
"Road Bill Poll Petition Given Authorized Title," Los Angeles Times, July 23, 1947, A14.
95
Brian Deane Taylor, "When Financing Leads Planning: The Influence of Public Finance on Transportation Planning and Policy in California" (PhD diss., Dept. of Urban Planning, UCLA, 1992).
96
Wilfred Owen and Charles L. Dearing, Той Roads and the Problem of Highway Modernization (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1951).
97
Gary T. Schwartz, "Urban Freeways and the Interstate System," Southern California Law Review 49 (1976): 406-513.
98
U.S. House of Representatives, Federal-Aid Highway and Highway Revenue Acts of 1956: Conference Report, June 25, 1956 (Washington, DC: gpo, 1956), 34-35.
99
Eric M. Patashnik, Putting Trust in the US Budget: Federal Trust Funds and the Politics of Commitment (Cam- bridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), chapter 6.
100
John Chynoweth Burnham, "The Gasoline Tax and the Automobile Revolution," Mississippi Valley His- torical Review 48 (June 1961): 457-58;
Lewis, Divided Highways, 111-12.
101
U.S. Senate, Highway Revenue Act: Hearings Before the Committee on Finance on H.R. 10660, May 17-18, 1956 (Washington, DC: gpo, 1956), 184-87.
102
U.S. House of Representatives, Highway Revenue Act of 1956: Hearings Before the Committee on Ways and Means on H.R. 9075, February 14-21, 1956 (Washington, DC: gpo, 1956), 436-41.
103
U.S. Senate, National Highway Program: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Public Works, February 21-28, March 2-31, April 1-15, 1955 (Washington, DC: gpo, 1955), 521-27.
104
Lewis, Divided Highways, 111.
105
Lewis, ibid., 119.
106
Metropolitan Freeways and Mass Transportation in Transactions of the Common- wealth Club of California 22 (August 1946): especially 113.
107
W. Lee Mertz, "Origins of the Interstate, on the website of the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, www.fhwa.dot.gov/intrastructure/origin.pdf.
108
Gayle B. Montgomery and James W. John- son, One Step from the White House: The Rise and Fall of Senator William F. Knowland (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 24-25.
109
"Oral History Interview with Mr. Richard M. Zettel," Feb- ruary 28, 1988, available from the Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
110
U.S. House of Representatives, National Highway Program: Hearings Before the Committee on Public Works on H.R. 4260, Part 1, April 18-28, May 3-26, June 1, 1955 (Washington, DC: gpo, 1955), 720-55. (Zettel's name is misspelled as "Zettle" and "Zetter" at various points in the transcript.)
111
Brodsly, L.A. Freeway, 110-26.
112
aasho, First Fifty Years, 187, 333, 344.
113
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, "Origins of the Interstate," online highway history available at www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/origino6.htm.
114
aasho, Convention Group Meetings, New York City, New York, September 24-26, 1947 (Washington, DC: AASHO, 1947), 27.
115
G. T. McCoy, "State Highway Finance and Budget Procedure in California" in aasho, Convention Group Meetings, Papers and Discussions, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1048 (Washington, DC: aasho, 1948), 48-57.
116
Frank C. Balfour, "Economic Impact of Expressways" in aasho, Convention Group Meetings, Papers and Dis- cussions, Miami, Florida, 1950 (Washington, DC: aasho, 1950), 119-45.
117
Buchanan, Legislative Partisanship, 31.
119
Schrag, op. cit., p. 35.
120
Jay Michael, Dan Walters, and Dan Weintraub, The Third House: Lobbyists, Money, and Power in Sacra- mento (Berkeley: Berkeley Public Policy Press. 2002).
121
H. R. Philbrick, Legislative Investigative Report (n.p.: Edwin N. Atherton & Associates, 1938).
122
Phillips, Big Wayward Girl, chapter 18;
Arthur H. Samish and Bob Thomas, The Secret Boss of California: The Life and High Times of Art Samish (New York: Crown Publishers, 1971).
Doerr, op. cit.,
Earl Warren Oral History Project, "The Governor and the Public, the Press, and the Legislature. 1973, interview of Verne Scoggins, press secretary, 60-61.
Vail, "Legislative History of Collier-Bums," 44-
123
Editorial of the San Francisco Chronicle of June 13, 1947,
William Buchanan, Legislative Partisan- ship, 33.
124
Daniel J. B. Mitchell, "Earl War- ren's California Health Insurance Plan: What Might Have Been," Southern California Quarterly 85 (Sum- mer 2003): 205-28.
125
Norris Hundley, Jr., The Great Thirst: Californians and Water, A History, rev. ed. (Berkeley and Los Ange- les: University of California Press, 2001).
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