Notes

Notes
1
Gerald D. Nash, World War II and the West: Reshaping the Economy (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990), 69-70,
2
Charles D. Chamberlain, Victory at Home: Manpower and Race in the American South during World War U (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2003),
Chapter 3, "'On the Train and Gone': Worker Mobility in the Cotton Belt, 1941-1945," 60-96,
Chapter 4, "The Segregation Frontier: African American Migrant War Workers in the Pacific West, 1941-1945," 97-128;
Shirley Ann Moore, "'Her Husband Didn't Have a Word to Say': Black Women and Blues Clubs in Richmond, California dur- ing World War II," American Labor in the Era of World War II, ed. Sally M. Miller and Daniel A. Cornford (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995), 147-164,
Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, "African-American Migrant Women in the San Francisco East Bay Area," in Miller and Cornford, 165-185.
3
Sherna Berger Gluck, Rosie the Riveter Revisited: Women, The War, and Social Change (New York: A Merid- ian Book, New American Library, A Division of Penguin Books USA, Inc., 1987);
Judy Barrett Litoffand David C. Smith, American Women in a World at War (Wilmington: A Scholarly Resources, Inc. Imprint, 1997)
Brenda L. Moore, To Serve My Coun- try, To Serve ЬАу Race: The Story of the Only African American WACs Stationed Overseas During World War 11 (New York: New York University Press, 1996),
Serving Our Country: Japanese American Women in the Military During World War 11 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003).
4
Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on the Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997), 317-319, 323-359.
5
War Relocation Authority, WRA: A Story of Human Conservation (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1946), Table 2, 198.
Per- sonal Justice Denied, 157, 179-180.
6
Sucheng Chan, Asian Americans: An Interpretive History (New York: Twayne Publishers, 1991), 123;
Dorothy Swaine Thomas and Richard Nishimoto with contributions by Rosalie A. Hankey, James M. Sakoda, Morton Grodzins, and Frank Miyamoto, The Spoilage (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1946), 5-6;
Jacobus TenBroek, Edward N. Barnhart and Floyd W. Matson, Prejudice, War and the Constitution (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1954), 101;
John Christgau, "Enemies": World War 11 Alien Internment (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1985).
Gerald Stanley, "Justice Deferred: A Fifty-Year Perspective on Japanese-Intern- ment Historiography," Southern California Quarterly 74 (Summer 1992): 181-206.
Gloria Ricci Lothrop, "Unwelcome in Freedom's Land: The Impact of World War II on Italian Aliens in Southern California," Southern California Quarterly 81 (Winter 1999): 507-544.
7
Charles J. McClain, "Tortuous Path, Elusive Goal: The Asian Quest for American Citizenship," Asian Law Journal 2:42-48.
Miyamoto, viii-xx;
Bob Kumamoto, "The Search for Spies: American Counterintelligence and the Japanese American Community, 1931-1942," Amer asia Journal 6 (Fall 1979): 58-72,
Gary Y. Okihiro, Cane Fires: The Anti-Japanese Move- ment in Hawaii, 1865-1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992), 267,
Ward M. McAfee, "America's Two Japanese-American Policies during World War II," South- em California Quarterly 60 (Summer 1087): 151 -164.
8
Peter Irons, Justice At War: The Story of the Japanese American Internment Cases with new epilogue (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993), 19.
9
Yukiko Furuta, interview by Arthur A. Hansen and Yasko Gamo, trans. Masako Hanada, O.H. 1752,
California State University, Fullerton Oral History Program, Japanese American Project, (Hereafter ieoc) June 17 and July 6, 1982, Pollak Library, California State University, Fullerton (Hence- forth pl-csuf), 108.
Yukiko Furuta interview, 2, 13.
Henry Kiyomi Akiyama, interview by Arthur A. Hansen and Yasko Gamo, O.H. 1751, ieoc, June 10 and 29 and July 27, 1982, pl-csuf, 135-140.
10
Yukiko Furuta interview, 118.
11
Maki Kanno, interview by Toni Rimei and Masako Hanada, trans. Maskao Hanada, O.H. 1761, ieoc, November 30, 1983, pl-csuf, 58.
Maki Kanno interview, 9, 15.
12
Ichioka, The issei, 173-175.
13
Roger Daniels, Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States Since 1850 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988), 126-132;
Emma Gee, "Issei Women," Counterpoint, ed. Emma Gee (Los Ange- les: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1976), 359-364.
Daniels, Asian America, 152.
14
Mine Yabuki Kaneko, interview by Marsha Bode and Yukiko Sato, trans. Chiharu Yawata and Masako Hanada, O.H. 1760, ieoc, January 26, 1984, pl-csuf, 34.
Mine Yabuki Kaneko interview, 3, 5, 12.
15
Personal Justice Denied, 61.
16
Shizu Kamei, interview by Toni Rimei and Masako Hanada, trans. Masako Hanada, O.H. 1755, ieoc, Jan- uary 23, 1984, pl-csuf, 74.
Shizu Kamei interview, 2-3, 38, 48.
17
Raymond Y. Okamura, "The Myth of Census Confidentiality," Amer asia Journal 8 (Fall 198 1): 111-120,
Roger Daniels, "The Bureau of the Census and the Relocation of the Japanese Americans: a Note and a Document," Amerasia Journal 9 (Spring 1982): 101-105.
18
Masako Tashima, interview by Pat Tashima, O.H. 1359, Japanese American Evacuation, Japanese Ameri- can Project, California State University, Fullerton Oral History Program, June 1, 1974, pl-csuf, 5.
Masako Tashima interview, 1-7.
19
U.S. Department of War, Final Report, 357.
20
Masako Tashima interview, 8-9.
21
Masako Tashima interview, 1, 9.
22
Irons gives the lower figure injustice at War, 75,
Mary Asaba Ventura in Seattle, leav- ing some unnamed, 74-117.
John Tateishi, And Justice For All: An Oral History of the Japanese American Detention Camps (New York: Random House, 1984), xx,
The National Committee for Redress of the Japanese American Citizens League, The Japanese American Incarceration: A Case For Redress (San Francisco: The National Commit- tee for Redress of the Japanese American Citizens League, June, 1978), 18-19,
The National Com- mittee on Redress, 18-10.
23
Roger Daniels, The Politics of Prejudice: The Anti-Japanese Movement in California and the Struggle for Japan- ese Exclusion, 2 ed. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1977), 41-44.
24
Takao Ozawa v. United States, 260 U.S. 178; see also Yuji Ichioka, "The Early Japanese Immigrant Quest for Citizenship: The Background of the 1922 Ozawa Case," Amerasia Journal 4 (Fall 1977): 1-22.
25
Swaine, et al., The Salvage, 3-15; United States Commission on Civil Rights, Civil Rights Issues Facing Asian Americans in the 1990s (Washington, D.C.: The Commission, 1992), 3-4.
26
TenBroek, et al, 50-62.
27
Maki Kanno, interview by Toni Rimei and Masako Hanada, trans. Maskao Hanada, O.H. 1761, ieoc, November 30, 1983, pl-csuf, 57.
28
cwric, 38-44;
Valerie J. Matsumoto, Farming the Home Place: A Japanese Ameri- can Community in California, 1919-1982 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993), 56-86,
Sylvia Junko Yanagisako, Transforming the Past: Tradition and Kinship Among Japanese Americans (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985), 67-72, 134-153.
29
Thomas and Nishimoto, The Spoilage, 30.
30
Evaluations of climate from Thomas and Nishimoto, 28.
31
War Relocation Authority, WRA: A Story of Human Conservation, Table 1, 197.
32
Margie Fujiyama, interview by Sue Fowler, O.H. 1383, Japanese American Evacuation, Japanese American Project, California State University, Fullerton Oral History Program, January 11-12, 1973, pl-csuf, 4.
Margie Fujiyama interview, 1-3.
33
Aiko Tanamachi Endo, interview by Marsha Bode, O.H. 1750,
Cultural Foundation of Orange County Japanese American Council and California State University, Fullerton Oral History Program, Japanese American Project, November 15, 1983, pl-csuf, 28.
Endo interview, 1-3.
34
Mine Yabuki Kaneko interview, 35.
35
Alexander H. Leighton, The Governing of Men: General Principles and Recommendations Based on Experience at a Japanese Relocation Camp (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1945), 55;
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 30.
36
Thomas and Nishimoto, 29-30;
War Relocation Authority, "Japanese-Americans in Relocation Centers, page 2, in Folder, "Memorandum, Order, etc. Washington Office [1.1]," Records of J. W. Shepard, Fiscal Office of the Colorado River War Relocation Project, 1942-1948, From: Administrative Instructions To: Cost Accounting (file ind.), Box No. 63, A9598, rg 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Irrigation District Number Four, Colorado River Irrigation Proiect. na-ln:
Mareie Fuiivama interview, 4.
37
Jeffery F. Burton, Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, and Richard B. Lord, Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War 11 Japanese American Relocation Sites (Tucson, AZ: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Parks Service. Western Archeoloeical and Conservation Center, iooo). 210-228.
38
Burton, Farrell, Lord, and Lord, Confinement and Ethnicity, 216.
39
Mine Yabuki Kaneko interview, 35.
40
Masako Tashima interview, 6.
41
Betty Oba Masukawa, interview by Diane Tappey, O.H. 1756,
California State University, Fullerton Oral History Program, Japanese American Project, November 2, 1983, pl-csuf, ii.
42
Margie Fujiyama interview, 5.
43
Yukiko Furuta interview, 124.
44
Yukiko Furuta interview, 124;
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 28,
45
Yukiko Furuta inferview. 123-124.
46
Yanagisako, 97-105, 115-118.
47
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 29.
48
Yukiko Furuta interview, 135.
49
Margie Fujiyama interview, 4.
50
Margie Fujiyama interview, 7.
51
Margie Fujiyama interview, 7.
52
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 29.
53
"Leonard Bloom, "Familial Adjustments of Japanese-Americans to Relocation: First Phase" American Socio- logical Review 6, no. 5 (October 1943), 559.
54
Ibid.
55
Yukiko Furuta interview, 135.
56
Margie Fujiyama interview, 6-7.
57
Yukiko Furuta interview, 135.
58
Margie Fujiyama interview, 8.
59
"Rationing to Be Applied," Postou Chronicky February 4, 1943, 5.
60
War Relocation Authority, WRA, 77-81.
61
"Unavailable at Stores," Poston Chronicle, February 3, 1943, 1.
62
Sears in Poston Chronicky June 6, 1943, 2.
63
Betty Oba Masukawa interview, 11-12.
64
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 30.
65
Ibid.
66
Margie Fujiyama interview, 7.
67
Maki Kanno interview, 61.
68
Margie Fujiyama interview, 4.
69
Mine Yabuki Kaneko interview, 36.
70
Leighton, 378-379.
71
December 25, 1942, memorandum from Poston III Community Council to Dr. Ralph B. Snavely, Albu- querque, New Mexico, Folder "W.R.A. -Poston + Pima," Box 461, rg 75, na-ln.
72
R. N. Crawford, supervisor, Public Health Nursing, Camp II to Dr. Pressman, director of Health & Sani- tation, regarding Monthly Report of Public Health Nursing Activities, Camp II, September 1 -October 1, 1943, and October 11 ,1943,
Elma Rood, supervisor, Public Health Nurs- ing to Dr. Ralph B. Snavely, district medical director, October 12, 1943,
Folder "War Relocation Author- ity, Poston, Ariz. Public Health Nursing Program," Box 461, rg 75,
Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Phoenix Area Office, Department of Health, Correspondence Related to Japanese Resettlement Camps From: 1942 To: 1944, na-ln.
73
"Standard Method of Immunization," "A Guide to Baby's Feeding the First Year," as well as "Instruc- tions for Parents of Children Who Have Had Tonsil Operations," and "Instructions for Parents of Chil- dren and Others Who Have Had Hernia Operations," Folder: "War Relocation Authority, Poston, Ariz. Public Health Nursing Program," Box 461, rg 75, na-ln.
74
Maki Kanno interview, 56.
75
Mine Yabuki Kaneko interview, 36.
76
Margie Fujiyama interview, 7.
77
Lester E. Suzuki, Ministry in the Assembly and Relocation Centers of World War II (Berkeley: Yardbird Publishing, 1979), and specifically 243-263, for Poston.
78
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 33: "I think they used to have the Buddhist services fairly frequently in camp."
79
"Miss Cheney Speaks to Quad 5 Women," Poston Chronicle, February 13, 1943, 4.
80
"New Jobs Available at Employment Office," Pos- ton Chronicle, December 30, 1942, 3.
81
wra, WRA, 33-41.
82
Richard Dnnnon, Keeper of Concentration Camps: Dillon S. Myer and American Racism (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987), 50-55.
83
Sally M. Miller and Daniel A. Comford, Introduction in Sally M. Miller and Daniel A. Comford, eds., American Labor in the Era of World War II (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995), 2-3.
84
Maki Kanno interview, 62.
85
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 29.
U.S. Department of the Interior, War Relocation Authority, Impounded People: Japanese Americans in the Relo- cation Centers (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1946), 55-56.
86
Shizu Kamei interview, 75.
87
Mine Yabuki Kaneko interview, 46.
88
Margie Fujiyama interview, 8;
"Assistant Teachers to Aid in Grade Schools Urgently Needed by Education Department," Poston Chronicle, January 22, 1943, 3.
89
War Relocation Authority, WRA, 51-59.
Drinnon, Keeper of Concentration Camps, 50-54.
90
Betty Oba Masukawa interview, 12.
91
R. H. Rupkey: R. H. Rupkey, chief, Operations Division & Agri- culture, "Industry Activities," Folder 4.5.2. 11 "Colorado River Gravity Project—Japanese Interment— Gen.," Box 10, RG75 U.S.B.I.A. Phoenix Area Office, Irrigation Projects, 1935-61, na-ln, i.
92
R. H. Rupkey, chief, Operations Division & Agriculture, "Industry Activities," Folder 4.5. 2. 11, Box 10, RG75, na-ln, 1;
Shizu Kamei interview, 75.
93
R. H. Rupkey, chief, Operations Division & Agriculture, "Industry Activities," Folder 4.5. 2. 11, Box 10, rg 75, NA-LN, I-4.
94
"Classes in Drama Dept. Announced," Poston Chronicle, December 24, 1942, 3.
95
Toshiko Iwaki, "History of Our Library," in Vincent Tajiri, edited with observations, Through Innocent Eyes: Writings and Art from the Japanese American Interment by Poston I Schoolchildren ("Originally compiled in 1943 as Out of the Desert by Ray Franchi and Paul Takeda with the assistance of teachers and students"), (Los Angeles: Keiro Services Press and the Generations Fund, 1990), 71.
96
Memorandum from R. N. Crawford, Supervisor, Public Health Nursing, Camp II to Dr. Pressman, director of Health & Sanitation, regarding Monthly Report of Public Health Nursing Activities, Camp II, Sep- tember i-October 1, 1943 and October 11, 1943, page 2, included in correspondence from Elma Rood, supervisor, Public Health Nursing to Dr. Ralph B. Snavely, district medical director, 12 October 1943, Folder "War Relocation Authority, Poston, Ariz. Public Health Nursing Program," Box 461, rg 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Phoenix Area Office, Department of Health, Correspondence Related to Japanese Resettlement Camps From: 1942 To: 1944, na-ln.
97
"150 Adobe Workers Needed for New Project," Poston Chronicle, January 8, 1943, 6.
"Women Employed in Adobe Project," Poston Chronicky February 5, 1943, 5.
98
"Quad III Girl Scouts to Aid in Adobe Work," Poston Chronicle, February 4, 1943, 4.
"Women Lauded for Adobe Effort," Poston Chronicle, Feb- ruary 9, 1943, 5.
99
"Photos of Women At Work on Adobe Project Swing Big Lumber Deal for School," Poston Chronicle, April 18, 1943, 1.
100
Hisaye Yamamoto's short story, "Death Rides the Rails to Pos- ton," Poston Chronicle, January 9, 1943, 7,
"Departing Chronicle Workers Given Party," Poston Chron- icle, June 6, 1945, 3.
101
"Manpower Felt in Poston, Survey to Be Conducted," Poston Chronicle, March 6, 1943, 1.
102
"'Ag' Girls Aid Manpower Shortage," Poston Chronicle, March 26, 1943, 3.
103
"Girl Truck and Taxi Drivers Wanted," Poston Chronicle, March 7, 1043, 2.
104
Yukiko Furuta interview, 135.
105
Margie Fujiyama interview, 11.
106
Yukiko Furuta interview, 135.
107
Thomas James, Exile Within: The Schooling of Japanese Americans, 1942-1945 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987).
108
Eileen H. Tamura, Americanization, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: The Nisei Generation in Hawaii (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1904), 108-115, 172.
Leighton, 101, and Okihiro, 156-157.
109
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 30.
110
Ibid., 31.
111
Margie Fujiyama interview, 5-6.
112
Ibid., 5.
113
Ibid., 6.
114
Betty Oba Masukawa interview, 12.
115
Correspondence of Sallie Jeffries to Ella Lacy Blake, September 28, 1942, Folder "W.R.A.—Poston + Pima," Box 461, rg 75, na-ln.
Susan L. Smith, "Women Health Workers and the Color Line in the Japanese American 'Relocation Centers' of World War II," Bulletin of the History of Medicine (Winter 1999): 585-601.
116
Maki Kanno interview, 63.
117
Correspondence from Helen P. Olmstead, field nurse supervisor to Dr. A. Pressman, director of Health & Sanitation, W.R.A. , Poston, Arizona, 20 February 1943, which includes "Report of Detail to Poston, Ari- zona, December 5, 1942, to February 7, 1943," Folder "War Relocation Authority, Poston, Ariz. Public Health Nursing Program," Box 461, rg 75, na-ln.
118
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 3 1 .
"Unit 2 Visiting Nurses Join Poston Hospital," Poston Chron- icle, January 6, 1943, 4,
"Visiting Nurses Feted at 'Farewell Party,'" Poston Chronicle, January 7, 1943, 5-
119
War Relocation Authority, "Japanese-Americans in Relocation Centers," 3-4, in Folder "Memorandum, Order, etc. Washington Office [1.1]" Box No. 63, A9598, rg 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Irrigation District Number Four, Colorado River Irrigation Project, Records of J. W. Shepard, Fiscal Office of the Colorado River War Relocation Project, 1942-1948, From: Administrative Instructions To: Cost Accounting (file ind.), na-ln.
Margie Fujiyama interview, 9.
Masako Tashima interview, 7.
120
Matsumoto, Farming the Home Place, 142-145.
121
Japanese Americans on indefinite leave were initially barred from the East Coast, but this restriction was eventually lifted, cwric, 202-204, and wra, WRA, 135-142.
122
Shizu Kamei interview, 69.
123
"55 Residents to Leave for Cannery," Poston Chronicle, June 22, 1944, 1.
124
"Girl War Plant Workers Wanted in Cleveland," Poston Chronicle, August 22, 1944, 1.
125
"Camp II Girl ist Nisei wac," Poston Chronicle December 18, 1943, 1,
"Poston Girl Joins Air wac," Pos- ton Chronicle, February 26, 1944, 1.
Brenda L. Moore, Serving Our Country: Japanese American Women in the Military During World War 11 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003), 20.
126
Moore, 94-95.
127
Cynthia Neverdon-Morton, "Securing the 'Double V: African-American and Japanese-American Women in the Military During World War II," in Paula Nassen Poulos, ed., A Woman's War Too: U.S. Women in the Military During World War 11 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1996), 33b
128
War Relocation Authority," Japanese-Americans in Relocation Centers," 4, in Folder, "Memorandum, Order, etc. Washington Office [1.1]," Box No. 63, A9598, rg 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Irrigation District Number Four, Colorado River Irrigation Project, Records of J. W. Shepard, Fiscal Office of the Colorado River War Relocation Project, 1942-1948, From: Administrative Instructions To: Cost Accounting (file ind.), na-ln.
129
"Domestic Work for Couples Open in Omaha," Poston Chronicle, January 8, 1943, 5.
130
Chef Job Open in University or Colorado boronty House," Chroston Chronicle, January 20, 1943, 2.
131
Yukiko Furuta interview, 129.
132
Aiko Tanamachi Endo interview, 31-32.
133
Ibid., 32.
134
Ibid., 33.
135
Margie Fujiyama interview, 9.
136
Maki Kanno interview, 68.
137
Shizu Kamei interview, 75.
138
Mine Yabuki Kaneko interview, 45;
Shizu Kamei interview, 82.
139
Elizabeth A. Wheeler's "A Concrete Island: Hisaye Yamamoto's Postwar Los Angeles," Southern California Quarterly 78 (Spring 1996): 10-50.
140
Tetsuden Kashima, "Japanese American Internees Return, 1945 to 1955: Readjustment and Social Amnesia." Phylon 41. no. 2 (1980): 107-115.
141
Mitchell T. Maki, Harry H.L. Kitano, and S. Megan Berthold, Achieving the Impossible Dream: How Japanese Americans Achieved Redress (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999).
142
Chizu Omori, "The Life and Times of Rabbit in the Moon" in Erica Hart, ed., Last Witnesses: Reflections on the Wartime Internment of Japanese Americans (New York: Palgrave, 2001), 216.
143
Rabbit in the Moon, directed by Emiko Omori, (Hohokus, NJ: New Day Films, 2001).
144
Gluck, Rosie the Riveter Revisited, 16-17, 260-262;
Amy Kesselman, Fleeting Opportunities: Women Ship- yard Workers in Portland and Vancouver During World War 11 and Reconversion (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990),
Chapter 4, "What Will Happen When the Boys Come Home," 91-103,
Chapter 5, "After the War," 105-133.
Joanne Meyerowitz, Not June Cleaver: Women and Gender in Postwar Amer- ica, 1945-1960 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994).
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