Notes

Notes
1
Louis R. Ardouin, R/W Agent, to Mr. E.N. Whittemore, R/W Agent, October 1,1943
2
Duane L Cronk, "A Day with a Right-of-Way Agent," Westways, November 1966, 36-37.
3
Los Angeles Times, seci, May 9, 1959.
4
Leonard Pitt and Dale Pitt, Los Angeles A to Z: An Encyclopedia of the City and County (Berkeley and Los Ange- les: University of California Press, 1997), 87.
5
Bob Pool, "Chavez Ravine Residents Make Peace with Dodgers," Los Angeles Times, sec. B, October 29, 2000, 6.
6
"Public Housing and the Brooklyn Dodgers; Los Angeles: Double Play by City Hall in the Ravine," Frontier: The Voice of the blew West, June 1957, 7.
7
Ibid.
Chavez Ravine story, visit http://www.toonist.com/ flash/ravine.html.
8
Ibid., 9.
9
Rodolfo F. Acuña, Community Under Siege: A Chronicle of Chícanos East of the Los Angeles River, 1945-197 5 (Los Angeles: Chicano Studies Research Center Publications, 1984), 69.
10
"Public Housing and the Brooklyn Dodgers," 7.
11
"Santa Ana Freeway Paving Starts Oct. I; Two Overcrossings Scheduled in Project," Southwest Builder and Con- tractors 108 (July 1946): 23-24;
"Santa Ana Freeway," California Highways and Public Works (September-Octo- ber 1948): 41.
The California Division of Highways became the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) in 1972.
12
"New Freeway: East Los Angeles Motorists Are Saved Driving Time," California Highways and Public Works (July-August 1948): 17.
13
Ibid., 7.
14
"Pomona Freeway Section To Be Finished In Fall," Eastside Sun, January 14, 1965;
"A look at the Freeway Pro- gram, District VII," California Divisions of Highways, September 18, 1964;
California Highways and Public Works (March-April 1964):1o,12,17;
"New Freeway," California Highways and Public Works 27 (July-August, 1948): 13-17-
15
"Boyle Heights Community Plan Background Report," (Los Angeles: Department of City Planning, 1974, 47.
Planners, Inc., Nuestro Ambiente: East Los Angeles Visual Survey and Analysis (Los Angeles: Barrio Planners Incorporated, 1973), 80.
16
Eric R. Avila, Reinventing Los Angeles: Popular Culture in the Age of White Flight, 1940-1965 (PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1997), 23-25.
Eric R. Avila, Popular Culture in the Age of White Flight: Fear and Fantasy in Suburban Los Ange- les (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004).
17
Scott L Bottles, Los Angeles and the Automobile: The Making of the Modern City (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Uni- versity of California Press. 1987). 1-30.
18
Ibid., 59.
19
David Brodsly, L.A. Freeway: An Appreciative Essay (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1970), 95.
20
Ibid.,2,29-31.
21
Acuña, Community Under Siege, xi, 8.
22
Avila, Reinventing Los Angeles (PhD diss.), 20, 1 76.
23
H. Marshall Goodwin Jr.'s, "Right of Way Controversies in Recent California High- way-Freeway Construction," Southern California Quarterly (Spring 1974): 61-105.
Raul Homero Villa's Barrio Logos: Space and Place in Urban Chi- cano Literature and Culture (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000).
Allen J. Scott and Edward W. Soja ed., The City: Los Angeles and Urban Theory at the End of the Twentieth Century (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1996);
Greg Hise and William Deverell, Eden by Design: The 1930 Olmsted-Bartholomew Plan for the Los Angeles Region (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2000);
Jane Holtz Kay, Asphalt Nation: How the Automobile Took Over America and How We can Take It Back (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997).
24
U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1950
George Sanchez, "'What's Good for Boyle Heights is Good for the Jews': Creating Multiracialism on the Eastside during the 1950s," American Quar- terly 56 (September 2004).
"Los Angeles County Population and Housing Data: Statistical Data from the 1940 Census," pro- duced by the John Randolph Haynes and Dora Haynes Foundation (Los Angeles, 1944), 28.
Sleepy Lagoon Case, and the 1943
Gilbert Estrada, "How the East Was Lost: Mexican Frag- mentation, Displacement, and the East Los Angeles Freeway System, 1947-1972," (master's thesis, California State University, Long Beach, 2002), 35-59;
George J. Sanchez, Becoming Mex- ican American: Ethnicity, Culture and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993);
Becky M. Nicolaides, My Blue Heaven: Life and Politics in the Working- Class Suburbs of Los Angeles, 1920-1965 (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2002).
Mauricio Mazon's, The Zoot-Suit Riots: The Psychology of Symbolic Annihilation (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984);
Sanchez, Becoming Mexican American; and Francisco E. Balderrama and Raymond Rodriguez's, Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995).
25
"Work on New Santa Ana Freeway in Los Angeles Is Well Under Way," California Highways and Public Works (March-April 1946): 25-26.
26
"New Freeway; East Los Angeles Motorists Are Saved Driving Time," California Highways and Public Works (July-August 1948): 17.
27
Pitt and Pitt, 579.
28
Avila, Reinventing Los Angeles, 7;
Mike Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles (New York: Vin- tage Books, 1990), 161 -162.
29
"Santa Ana Freeway Paving Starts Oct. i; Two Overcrossings Scheduled in Project," Southwest Builder and Con- tractors 108 (July 1946): 23-24;
California Highways and Public Works 27 (July-August 1948): 17.
30
California Highways and Public Works 35 (January-February 1955): 60.
31
Los Angeles City Archives Piper Center. Letter to the City of Los Angeles from P.O. Harding, Assistant State Highway Engineer, September 13, 1950.
Mr. R. B. Halstad from Edward T. Telford, Assistant State Highway Engineer. [1956?]
32
Ibid.
33
Ibid.
34
Los Angeles City Archives, Council File 30224.
35
Los Angeles City Archives, "Resolution Adopting Traversable Highway in the City of Los Angeles, road VII- LA-173-LA," July 19, 1958.
Freeway Facts: A digest of answers to your questions about California Freeways and what they mean to you and your community (Sacramento: California Department of Public Works pamphlet, Division of Highways, 1965?)
36
Los Angeles City Archives, "Resolution Adopting Traversable Highway in the City of Los Angeles, road VII- LA-173-LA," July 19, 1958.
37
Acuña, Community Under Siege, 73.
38
Ibid.
39
California Highways and Public Works (January-February 1955): 60.
40
Ibid., 19.
41
"Eastside Up in Arms over Proposed $32,000,000 Golden State Freeway," sec. 1, Eastside Sun, October 1, 1953.
42
Mr. and Mrs. Joe Coral, interview with the author, July 2001.
43
"Design of Interchange Was a Team Effort," California Highways and Public Works 37 (November-December 1958): 20-21.
Division of Highways (for the East Los Angeles Interchange) was overshadowed when construction costs skyrocketed in the 1970s, '8os, and '90s
44
California Highways and Public Works 37 (January-February 1955): 40.
45
"Road Kill Diaries: Yep, It's a Jam Out There," as published at http://www.dccomix.com/roadkilldiaries/traf- ficjams.htm (Accessed May 2001);
California Highways and Public Works 37 (January-February 1955): 30.
46
California Department of Transportation website, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/saferesr/trafdata/ 2002all.html; http://www.scvresources.com/highways/east_los_angeles_interchange.htm. (Accessed May 2001).
47
"The Case of the 'Spaghetti Bowl,'" Southwest Builder and Contractor, October 1959, 18.
48
Highway News Bulletin, Newsletter for Division of Highways District VII.
49
California Highways and Public Works (May-June, 1 961).
50
Heinz Heckeroth, interviewed by the author, July 2001.
51
California Highways and Public Works (November-December 1958): 20.
52
Sidronio Perez and Alicia Perez, interview by the author, June 2001;
Heinz Heckeroth interview by the author, July 2001.
53
Ibid.
54
Heinz Heckeroth interview by the author, July 2001.
55
Ibid.;
56
California Highways and Public Works (March -April 1964): 24; http://www.clipl.org/ourwork/ heritageparkscape.html. (Accessed May 2001.)
57
"Los Angeles County Population and Housing Data: Statistical Data from the 1940 Census," produced by the John Randolph Haynes and Dora Haynes Foundation (Los Angeles: Haynes Foundation, 1944), 28.
58
Joan W. Moore, Going Down to the Barrio: Homeboys and Homegirls in Change (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992), 14.
Gilbert G. Gonzalez, "Factors Relating to Property Ownership of Chicanos in Lin- coln Heights Los Angeles," Mtlan: Chicano Journal of the Social Sciences and the Arts (Fall 1971).
59
Los Angeles Times, sec. A, December 19, 1994.
60
Ibid.
61
"Rapid Progress on the Harbor Freeway," California Highways and Public Works 33 (May-June 1954): 7.
62
"The Changing Role of your Highway Agency in relation to: People, Automobiles, Highways, Environment, Ecology," prepared by the California Division of Highways, n.d., 5.
64
"Boyle Heights Community Plan," 47;
"East Los Angeles Visual Survey," 50;
Brodsly, LA. Freeway, 9.
65
Los Angeles Times, May 20, 200 1;
66
"Highways From Hell: Meet the Beverly Hills Freeway and Other Visions of a Future We Almost Got," Los Angeles Magazine, December 1999, 46;
"Can't Stay, but Can't Sell, Beverly Hills Freeway: to limbo," Los Ange- les Times, sec. 2, December 7, 1970.
67
David W. Jones, California's Freeway Era in Historical Perspective, Research Report, Institute of Transporta- tion Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 1989, 227.
68
South Coast Air Quality Management, "Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study in the South Coast Air Basin," 2000, ES-3.
69
Ibid., ES-3, ES-5;
Patricia van Vliet, Mirjan Knape, Jeroen de Harog, et al., "Motor Vehicle Exhaust and Chronic Respiratory Symptoms in Children Living Near Freeways," Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Air Pollution, University of Wageningen, P.O. Box 238, 6700 AE Wageningen, The Nether- lands, July 9, 1996.
Nino Kunzli, MD, PhD., et al., "Breathless in Los Angeles: The Exhausting Search for Clean Air," American Journal of Public Health (2003): 1499; 1494-
Michelle Wilhelm and Beate Ritz, "Residential Proximity to Traffic and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Los Angeles County, California, 1994-1996," Environmental Health Perspectives (2003): 207-216;
Yifang Zhu, William C. Hinds, Seongheon Kim, and Constantinos Sioutas, "Concentration and Size Distribution of Ultra Fine Particles Near a Major Highway," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (2002): 1032-1042.
70
California Environmental Protection Agency: Air Resource Board, "Community Air Quality Monitoring: Spe- cial Studies; Boyle Heights," November 2003.
71
"More 710 Freeway Fatalities:" Eastern Group Publications 58 (October 16, 2003): 32.
72
Eastern Group Publications 58 (July 10, 2003): 18; "Destination 2030: 2004 Regional Transportation Plan," (Los Angeles: Southern Cal- ifornia Association of Governments, 2004), 9.
73
Gilbert Estrada, "Transportation and Health in Head-On Collision!," Southern Sierran (February, 2004). Also available at http://angeles.sierradub.org/news/SouthernSierran.asp.
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