Notes

Notes
1
Jay H. Buckley, "William Clark: Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis, 1813-1838" (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska, 2001), 1;
Time, July 8, 2002.
Carolyn Gilman, Lewis and Clark: Across the Divide (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 2003),
2
Stephen Ambrose, Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West (New York: Simon and Schus- ter, 1996).
"Rediscovering Lewis and Clark," Conver- gence, 1 (Summer 2004), 12-15.
3
Jefferson quoted in Betty Houchin Winfield, "Public Perception of the Expedition," in Alan Taylor, ed., Lewis and Clark: Journey to Another America (St Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press, 2003), 187.
St. Louis appeared in the Frankfort, Kentucky, newspaper The Western World on October 11, 1806, and is reprinted in James P. Ronda, ed., Voyages of Dis- covery: Essays on the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 1998), 203-205.
4
Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis, June 20, 1803, in Günther Barth, ed., The Lewis and Clark Expedition: Selections from the Journals Arranged by Topic (Boston: Bedford, 1998), quotation on 18;
Anthony F. C. Wal- lace, Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1999), 266;
James P. Ronda, Finding the West: Explorations with Lewis and Clark (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001), 12;
Donald Jackson, Thomas Jefferson and the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981).
5
Louisiana Territory in detail in Stephen Aron, Amer- ican Confluence: The Missouri Frontier from Borderland to Border State (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, forthcoming),
6
Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis, June 20, 1803, in Barth, ed., The Lewis and Clark Expedition, quotation on 20;
Clark quoted in Buckley, "William Clark," 1 13.
James Ronda, Lewis and Clark among the Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), 1 -16;
John Logan Allen, "Imagining the West: The View from Monticello," in James P. Ronda, ed., Thomas Jefferson and the Changing West (Albuquerque and St. Louis: University of New Mex- ico Press and Missouri Historical Society Press, 1997), 3-23;
William E. Foley, "The Lewis and Clark Expe- dition's Silent Partners: The Chouteau Brothers of St. Louis," Missouri Historical Review 77 0anuarv 1983): 131-146;
William E. Foley and C. David Rice, The First Choteaus: River Barons of Early St. Louis (Urbana: Uni- versity of Illinois Press, 1983), 89-96.
7
Carolyn Gilman, "A World of Women," Gateway Heritage, 24 (Fall 2003-Winter 2004), quotation on 46;
Ronda, Lewis and Clark among the Indians, 36-37, 62-64, 106-107, 208-210, 232-233.
"William Clark's Nez Percé Son: A Tsoopnitpeloo Legend As Told by Otis Halfmoon of the Nez Percé Tribe," Discov- ering Lewis and Clark: A Legacy Website, http://www.lewis-clark.org/index.htm.
8
Meriwether Lewis, February 20, 1806, in Gary E. Moulton, ed., The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 13 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983-2001), quotation on 6: 331.
9
Stephen Aron, "Pigs and Hunters: 'Rights in the Woods' on the Trans-Appalachian Frontier," in Andrew R. L Cayton and Fredrika J. Teute, eds., Contact Points: American Frontiers from the Mohawk Valley to the Mis- sissippi, 1 750-1830 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 175-204;
Stephen Aron, How the West Was Lost: The Transformation of Kentucky from Daniel Boone to Henry Clay (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Uni- versity Press, 1996), 1-57, 102-123.
John Mack Faragher, "'More Motley Than Mackinaw': From Ethnic Mixing to Ethnic Cleansing on the Frontier of the Lower Missouri, 1783-1833," in Cayton and Teute, eds., Contact Points, 304-326.
10
Rufus King to Christopher Gore, September 6, 1803, in Charles R. King, ed., The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King, 6 vols. (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1897), quotation on 4:303;
William E. Foley, "James A. Wilkinson: Territorial Governor," Bulletin of the Missouri Historical Society 25 (October 1968): 14-15;
Bernard Sheehan, Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the American indián (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973), 245-250.
11
Meriwether Lewis to Thomas Jefferson, December 15, 1808, McCarter & English Indian Claim Cases, Mudd Library, Princeton University, Box 18, Folder 4, Exhibit 144
Clark quoted in J. Frederick Fausz, "Becoming 'a Nation of Quakers': The Removal of the Osage Indians from Missouri," Gateway Heritage 21 (Summer 2000): 37;
William Clark to the Secretary of War, September 23, 1808, in Clarence E. Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States: Volume 14: The Territory of Louisiana-Missouri, 1803-1806 (Wash- ington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1948), 224;
Jerome O. Steffen, William Clark: Jef fersonian Man on The Frontier (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977), 64-65.
Kate L Gregg, ed., Westward with Dragoons: The Journal of William Clark on His Expe- dition to Establish Fort Osage, August 25 to September 22, 1808 (Fulton, MO: Ovid Bell Press, 1937), 64-68.
12
Lewis quoted in Lynn Morrow, "Trader William Gilliss and Delaware Migration in Southern Missouri," Mis- souri Historical Review 75 (January 1981), 151;
William Clark to James Madison, April 10, 1811, in Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States: Volume 14, quotation on 445.
13
Governor Lewis, April 6, 1809, in Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States: Vol- ume 14, quotation on 261.
14
Frederick Bates to Richard Bates, July 14, 1809, in Thomas Maitland Marshall, ed., The Life and Papers of Fred- erick Bates, 2 vols. (St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 1926), quotation on 2: 68.
15
William Clark to Jonathan Clark, October 28, 1809, in James J. Holmberg, ed., Dear Brother: Letters of William Clark to Jonathan Clark (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), quotation on 216;
Gary E. Moulton, "Meri- wether Lewis," in Christensen, et al., eds., Dictionary of Missouri Biography (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999), 486;
Paul Aron, Unsolved Mysteries of American History (New York: J. Wiley, 1997), 79-84;
Kathryn Moore, "The Lost years of Meriwether Lewis," Journal of the West 42 (Summer 2003): 62-65.
J. Frederick Fausz and Michael A. Gavin, "The Death of Meriwether Lewis: An Unsolved Mystery," Gateway Heritage 24 (Fall 2003 -Winter 2004): 66-79,
16
Christian Wilt to Joseph Hertzog, August 6, 1814,
17
William Clark to the Secretary of War, August 20, 1814, in Carter, ed., Trie Territorial Papers of the United States: Volume 14, quotation on 786;
Governor William Clark, A Proclamation, December 4, 1815, in Clarence E. Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States: Volume 15: The Territory of Louisiana-Missouri, 1815-1821 (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1951), quotation on 192.
18
Buckley, "William Clark," quotation on 143; John G. Heath to Frederick Bates, January 14, 1816, in Marshall, ed., TKe Life and Papers of Frederic Bates, quotation on 2: 297;
Territorial Assembly, Janu- ary 22, 1816
Honourable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress, in Carter, ed., TKe Territorial Papers of the United States: Volume 15, 106-107;
Resolutions of the Territorial Assembly Referred, January 24, 1817: Resolutions Concerning the Indian Title in the Counties of St. Geneviève and Cape Gerardeau, in ibid., 235.
19
William E. Foley, "After the Applause: William Clark's Failed 1820 Gubernatorial Campaign," Gateway Her- itage 24 (Fall 2003-Winter 2004): 104-111;
Jerome O. Steffen, "William Clark: A New Perspective of Mis- souri Territorial Politics, 1813-1820," Missouri Historical Review 47 (January 1973): 171-197.
20
William Clark to J. С Calhoun, April 29, 1824,
21
Fausz, "Becoming 'a Nation of Quakers'," 38;
Walter A. Schroeder, Opening the Ozarks: A Historical Geography of Missouri's Ste. Geneviève District, 1 760-1 830 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2002), 194, 381-382;
Buckley, "William Clark," 114;
John L Loos, "William Clark: Indian Agent," Kansas Quarterly 3 (Fall 1971): 33-37.
Faragher, "'More Motley Than Mackinaw'," 304-326.
22
William Clark (St. Louis) to the Secretary of War, December 8, 1823, McCarter & English Indian Claim Cases, Box 18, Folder 2, Exhibit 91
William Clark to Secretary of War, June 1, 1829, ibid., Box 24, Folder 2, Exhibit 205
23
Clark quoted in Jerome O. Steffen, William Clark: Jef fersonian Man on the Frontier (Norman: University of Okla- homa Press, 1977), 150.
24
William Clark to Secretary of War, March 1, 1826, in in Walter Lowrie and Walter Franklin, eds., American State Papers, Class II, Indian Affairs, 2 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Gales and Seaton, 1834), quotations on 2: 653;
John Dougherty to William Clark, September 10, 1828, in John A. Dougherty, Letterbook, 1826-1829, Western Historical Manuscripts Collection, State Historical Society of Missouri, Columbia, C2292, Letter 65
25
Landon Y. Jones, Jr., William Clark and the Shaping of the American West (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 296-334.
26
Buckley, "William Clark," quotation on 268.
27
Winfield, "Public Perception of the Expe- dition," 178-199;
John Spencer, "'We are not dealing entirely with the pasť: Americans Remember Lewis &. Clark," in Kris Fresonke and Mark Spence, eds., Lewis and Clark: Legacies, Memories, and blew Perspectives (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 159-183.
28
Virginia Schar ff, Twenty Thousand Roads: Women, Movement, and the West (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 11 -33;
Thomas P. Slaughter, Exploring Lewis and Clark: Reflections on Men and Wilderness (New York: Knopf, 2003), 86-113;
Laura McCall, "Sacagawea: A Historical Enigma," in Kriste Lindenmeyer, ed., Ordinary Women, Extraordinary Lives: Women in American History (Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 2000), 39-54;
Angela Cavender Wilson, "A New Encounter: The Native Oral Tradition of Lewis and Clark," in Taylor, ed., Lewis and Clark, 196-197, 208-210.
29
Robert B. Betts, in Search of York: The Slave Who Went to the Pacific with Lewis and Clark (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2000, rev. ed.), 135-143;
Slaughter, Exploring Lewis and Clark, 114-133;
Winfield, "Pub- lic Perception of the Expedition," 194-195.
30
William Clark to Jonathan Clark, May 28, 1809, in Holmberg, ed., Dear Brother, quotations on 201;
William Clark to Jonathan Clark, December 10, 1808, in ibid., quotation on 184;
William Clark to Jonathan Clark, November 9, 1808, in ibid., quotations on 160;
James J. Holmberg, "'A Notion about Freedom': The Rela- tionship of William Clark and York," Gateway Heritage 24 (Fall 2003-Winter 2004): 80-87.
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