Notes

Notes
1
Richard E. lingenfelter, Death Valley and the Amargosa: A Land of Illusion (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), 466.
Steven Crum, "A Tripartite State of Affairs: The Timbisha Shoshone Tribe, the National Park Service, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1937-1994," American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ), 22 (1 998): 1 1 7-1 36;
Steven Haberfeld, "Govemment-toGovernment Negotiations: How the Timbisha Shoshone Got Its Land Back," AICRJ, 24 (2000): 127-165;
Imre Sutton, "The Continuing Saga of Indian Land Claims," AICRJ, 24 (2000): 144-145; Philip Burnham, Indian Country, God's Country (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2000), Pp. 3-8, 89-105, 160-165, 294-308.
2
Roger W. Toll to Director of National Park Service (NPS), April 23, 1931, p. 2, Central Classified Files (CCF), 1907-1949, Death Valley, 0.35, Box 583, Record Group (RG) 79, National Archives (NA), Washington, D.C.
3
"Death Valley to be National "monument1," Carlsbad Argus (New Mexico), February 23, 1933, CCF, 190749, Death Valley, 0.35, Box 583, RG 79, NA.
4
Mark David Spence, Dispossessing the Wilderness: Indian Removal and the making of the National Parks (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 39.
5
Robert H. Keller and Michael F. Turek, American Indians and National Parks (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998), 20.
6
Catherine S. Fowler, Molly Dufort, and Mary Rusco, "Residence Without Reservation: Ethnographic Overview and Traditional Land Use Study, Timbisha Shoshone, Death Valley National Park, California, Phase I (unpub- lished report, 1995), xi, 15.
7
Julian H. Steward, Some Western SHoshoni Myths, Anthropological Papers, No. 31, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 136, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1940), 262.
8
J.C. Boyles, "He witnessed the Death Valley tragedy of 49," Desert Magazine 3 (February 1940): 3-6.
9
Returns from U.S. military posts, 1800-1916 (M 617, Roll 506), RG 75, NA.;
William H. Michael, " 'At the Plow and in the Harvest Field1: Indian Conflict and Acculturation in the Owens Valley, 1860-1880," (Unpub- lished MLS Thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1993), 59-60;
Dorothy Clora Cragen, The Boys in the Sky-Blue Pants (Fresno: Pioneer Publishing Company, 1975), 75, 78, 81.
10
A.J. White to H.G. Parker, July 5, 1866, 34, Letters Received (M 234, Roll 538, Frames 741-756), RG 75, NA.
11
Ibid., 5.
Jack D. Forbes, "Indian Horticulture West and Northwest of the Colorado River," hurnal of the West, 2 (1963): 1-14.
12
Fowler, Dufort, and Rusco, "Residence Without Reservation," 73-74.
13
F.J. Essene interview with Roy Bellas, March 25, 1936, F.J. Essene (212.6), manuscript CU 23.1, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
14
Annual Report of the Chief Engineers to the Secretary of War for the Year 1876, Part III (Washington D.C.: Gov- ernment Printing Office, 1876), 352.
15
Beth Sennett-Graham, "Basketry: A Clue to Panamint Shoshone Culture in the Early 20th century," Unpub lished MA Thesis, University of Nevada-Reno, 1989, p. 41;
William J. Wallace, "Death Valley Indian Farm- ing," Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, 2, (Winter 1980): 269-272.
16
"The Panamint Indians of California," American Anthropologist 5 (1892): 351-361.
17
" Progressive Indians," Inyo Register, May 14, 1896, 3.
18
Ruth E. Kirk, "Where Hungry Bill once lived," Desert Magazine, 16, (March 1953): 16.
19
Richard E. Iingenfelter, Death Valley and the Amargosa, 113, 172-180, 209.
20
Ibid., 126.
21
Richard W. Stoffle, Native American Cultural Resource Studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1990), 56-65;
Sennett-Graham, "Basketry," 49-52;
"Desert Indian School," Inyo Register, October 29, 1925, 3.
22
Sennett-Graham, "Basketry," 103.
23
Ibid., 67-103;
Beth Sennett, "Wage Labor: Survival for the Death Valley Timbisha," in Alice Littlefield and Martha C. Knack, eds., Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996), 218-244.
24
"Three Bold, Brave men to Rout Band of Wild, Warring Redskins," Skidoo News (1907), Letters Received, BIA, 64468-07, RG 75, NA.
25
Ray R. Parrett to Tom Wilson, October 30, 1934, Land Transaction Case Records, Folder "IND #122," Box 10. Sacramento Area Office (SAO). RG 75. NA-Pacific Sierra Branch (PSB). San Bruno, California.
26
John H. Anderson, February 2, 1931, Central Classified Files (CCF), 42693-23-Bishop-313, RG 75,
27
J.E. Busch to U.S. Land Office, February 7, 1910, CCF, 14124-10-Carson-313, RG 75, NA.
28
C.E. Kelsey, Census of Non-Reservation California Indians, 1905-1906 (Berkeley: Archaeological Research Facil- ity/Department of Anthropology, UC Berkeley, 1971), 38.
29
NCIA to Theodore Roosevelt, May 18, 1903, CCF, 85552-08-California Special-300, RG 75, NA.
30
Indian Tribes of California, Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Indian Affairs, House of Rep- resentatives, 66th Cong., 2nd sess., March 23, 1920 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1921), 72-73.
31
"To Release Lands of Indian Reservation," Inyo Independent, December 21, 1929, 1.
32
Parrett to CIA, May 31, 1922, 34, CCF, 36220-22-Bishop-313, RG 75, NA.
33
"Parrett to CIA, August 19, 1921, October 18, 1922, March 12, 1920, CCF, 22199-20-Bishop-820, RG 75, NA.
34
E.B. Merritt to Parrett, October 11, 1924, CCF, 22199-20-Bishop-820, RG 75, NA;
"Desert Indian School," Inyo Register, October 29, 1925, 3.
35
Parrettto John H. Hoist, March 29, 1929, Inspection Reports, Box 31, Walker River Agency, RG 75, NA-PSB.
36
Carl M. Moore to CIA, March 7, 1930, CCF, 13631-30-Walker River-806, RG 75, NA.
37
Ibid.
38
Harry W Coonradt, April 28, 1930, CCF, 13631-30-Walker River-806, RG 75, NA.
39
C.L Ellis to CIA, May 2, 1930, CCF, 13631-30-Walker River-806, RG 75, NA.
40
Moore to CIA, December 31, 1930, p. 2, Inspection Reports, Box 31, Walker River, RG 75, NA-PSB.
41
Moore to CIA, February 14, 1931, Inspection Reports, Box 31, Walker River, RG 75, NA-PSB.
42
"Withdrawal of Lands for Indian Ranch," March 3, 1928, CCF, 1 567048-California-308, RG 75, NA.
43
Burnham, Indian Country, God's Country. 93.
44
"Saturday Evening Post, September 14, 1929, 89.
45
C. Hart Merriam, "Vocabularies of North American Indians" (Panamint Shoshone/Death Valley), November 1909, December 1919, April 1931, Papers of С Hart Merriam, File: Panamint Shoshone, Box 37, Library of Congress.
46
"Tribe Regains some Treasured Soil," Sacramento Bee, October 9, 2001, Al, AIO;
Haberfeld, "Government-to- Government Negotiations," 127.
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