[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
David M. Chalmers, Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan (2nd ed., New York: New Viewpoints, 1981), p. 125
2
Ku Klux Klan is Allen W. Trelease, White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971).
Chalmers, Hooded American- ism, pp. 1-27.
3
Shawn Lay, The invisible Empire in the West (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992), p. 6.
Nancy MacLean, Behind the Mask of Chivalry: The Making of the Second Ku Klux Klan (New York: Oxford University Press, 1 994),
Leonard J. Moore, "His- torical Interpretations of the 1920s Klan: The Traditional View and Recent Revisions," as contained in Lay, ed. The Invisible Empire in the West, pp. 17-38.
Chalmers, Hooded Americanism, pp. 28-303;
Kenneth T. Jackson, The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915-1930 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967),
(Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1 992);
Charles C. Alexander, The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1 965).
4
According to Shawn Lay, The invisible Empire in the West, p. 8.
5
Alexander, The Ku Klux Klan in the Southwest.
6
Arnold S. Rice, The Ku Klux Klan in American Politics (Washington, D.C., 1962);
Kenneth D. Wald, "The Invis- ible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan as an Electoral Movement," Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 1 1 (Autumn 1980): 217-234.
7
Geoffrey Perrett, America in the Twenties: A History (New York: 1982), pp. 72-78.
Albert Camarillo, Chícanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Puebloes to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California (Cam- bridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979), pp. 193-195
The Invisible Empire in the West, pp. 1-15, 217-224,
Klan in El Paso, Texas, albeit indi- rectly, in his own essay in that volume: "Imperial Outpost on the Border: El Paso's Frontier Klan No. 100," pp. 67-95.
8
John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1 955).
9
Fredrick Lewis Allen in his classic study, Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the Nine- teen-Twenties (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1931).
10
Leonard J. Moore, "Historical Interpretations of the 1920s Klan: The Traditional View and Recent Revisions," p. 32.
11
Leonard J. Moore, "Historical Interpretations of the 1920s Klan," p. 29,
Stanley Coben, "The Assault on Victorianism in the Twentieth Century," American Quarterly, 27 (December 1975: 604-625 and "The First Years of Modern America, 1918-1933," in William E. Leuchtenburg, ed., The Unfinished Century: America Since 1900 (Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1972), pp. 281-285.
12
Lay, The Invisible Empire in the West, p. 5.
Albert Camarillo in Chícanos in a Changing Society, p. 193,
13
Jackson, The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915-1930, p. 187-190.
Chalmers, Hooded Americanism, pp. 119-125.
14
Ibid., pp. 189-190.
Den- nis M. von Brauchitsch, "The Ku Klux Klan in California, 1921 to 1924" (M.A. Thesis, Sacramento State College, 1 967).
James Francis Schwabenland, "The Ku Klux Klan in Cal- ifornia" (M.S. Thesis, Fresno State University, 1981) For an examination of early Klan activity in Sacramento see: "The Ku Klux Klan in Sacramento, 1922," Golden Notes, 27 (Summer 1981); 1-10.
15
Jacbon, The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915-1930, p. 190.
16
William Rintoul, Oildorado: Boom Times on the West Side (Santa Cruz, CA: Valley Publishers, 1978), particularly the chapter entitled "Hooded Terror," pp. 165-185.
17
Jackson, The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915-1830, p. 190.
18
Los Angeles Times, April 30, May 7, 1922.
19
Visalia Daily Times, May 3, 1922.
20
Ibid., May 7, 1922.
21
Ibid., May 22, 1922.
22
Lindsay Gazette, May 5, 1922.
Lindsay Gazette: "I am not a member of the Klan and never have been."
23
Visalia Morning Delta, May 7, 1922;
Porterville Recorder, May 8, 9, 1922;
Terra Bella News as reprinted in the Woodlake Echo, May 19, 1922.
Visalia Times-Delta, May 11, 1934.
Quinn's Klan association, the Visalia Morning Delta, May 7, 1922
"Legion's Cowboy Commander," Visalia Daily Times, Oct. 19, 23, 1923.
24
Visalia Morning Delta, May 19, 1922.
25
Porterville Recorder, May 10, 1922.
26
Visalia Morning Delta, May 7, 1922.
San Francisco Examiner, April 2, 1922
Brauchitsch, "The Ku Klux Klan in California," p. 91 .
Fresno Bee, April 2, 1922.
." Fresno Bee, April 5, 1922.
Fresno Bee, April 2, 1922.
27
Porterville Recorder, January 16, 1923.
28
Ibid., January 17, 1923.
29
Ibid., May 7, 1923.
30
Tulare Daily Register, September 11, 1923.
31
Ibid., September 13, 1923.
32
Ibid., February 4, 1924.
33
Ibid., April 30, 1924.
34
Visalia Daily Times, July 24, 1924;
Tulare Daily Register, July 24, 1924.
35
Tulare DaUy Register, September 25, 27, 1924
36
Porterville Recorder, April 9, 1924.
37
Ibid.. Seotember 8. 9, 1924.
38
Lindsay Gazette, March 28, 1924.
39
Ibid., March 7, 1924;
Terra Bella News, April 24, 1924.
40
Porterville Recorder, October 7, 1924.
41
THe Exeter Sun, April 17, 1924.
42
Ibid.,Junel2, 1924.
43
William Raison, February 2, 1990.
Edwin Rice, February 5, 1990.
44
Delphic Echoes, n. 76.
45
The [Fresno] Republican, October 14, 1924, as cited in Schwabenland, "The Ku Klux Klan in California," pp. 19-20.
46
Newell G. Bringhurst with Bill Stoffer on July 27, 1989.
47
Tulare Daily Register, March 4, 1925.
48
Porterville Recorder, May 11, 1925.
49
Porterville Recorder, July 31 and August 1, 1925.
50
Porterville Recorder, August 4, 1925.
51
Visalia Morning Delta, April 7, 1925;
Visalia Daily Times, April 7, 1925.
52
Visalia Morning Delta, April 4, 1925;
Visalia Daily Times, April 1 1 , 1925.
53
Visalia Daily Times, April 11, 1925.
55
Visalia Daily times, April 14, 1925.
56
Visalia Morning Delta, April 15, 1925.
57
This observation concerning the peak of Klan strength in California and the larger nation has been made by various writers, in particular, Chalmers, Hooded Americanism, pp. 119-125; Jackson, The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915-1930, pp. 187-193.
58
Visalia Daily Times, January 5, 1926.
59
Visalia Morning Delta, January 5, 1926.
60
Ibid.
61
Visalia Daily Times, January 5, 1926.
62
Ibid., January 5, 1926; Visalia Morning Delta, January 5, 1926.
63
Morning Delta, January 13, 1926.
64
Visalia Daily Times, January 13, 1926.
Visalia Morning Delta, January 13, 1926.
65
Ibid., January 13, 1926.
66
Visalia Daily Times, January 13, 1926.
67
Ibid., April 5, 1927;
Visalia Morning Delta, April 12, 1927.
68
Visalia Times-Delta, September 25, 1927; Woodlake Echo, September 23, 1927.
69
Woodlake Echo, February 24, 1928.
70
Ibid.. March 2. 1928.
71
Arnold S. Rice, The Ku Klux Klan in American Politics, pp. 85-91 ;
Chalmers' Hooded Americanism, pp. 300-303
Jackson's The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915-1930, pp. 252-253.
72
Visaliat-Times Delta, April 4, 5, 9, 1929.
73
Dinuba Sentinal, June 24, 1929.
74
Visalia Times-Delta, July 1, 5, 1929;
Woodlake Echo, June 21, 1929
75
Pixley Enterprise, March 21, 1930.
76
IbidM March 28, 1930.
77
Ibid., April 4, 1930.
78
Ibid.,Julyll,1930.
79
Porterville Recorder, July 15, 1930,
Gange's 221.
80
Visalia Times-Delta, November 8, 18, 1930.
81
Ibid., November 22, 1930.
82
Ibid., December 29, 30, 1930.
83
Ibid., August 26, 1931.
84
Ibid., September 5, 7, 1931.
85
Fresno Bee, September 7, 1931.
86
Visalia Times-Delta, September 5, 7, 1931.
87
Fresno Bee, September 6, 1931.
88
Visalia Times-Delta, September 14, 1931.
89
Robert A. Goldberg in his The Ku Klux Klan in Colorado (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981), p. 178.
90
Visalia Times-Delta, June 6, 1931, October 30, 1948.
91
Ibid., September 4, 1931.
92
Tulare County Directory, 1930-1931 (Sacramento, CA: McNeal Directory Co., 1931).
93
Robert A. Goldberg in The Ku Klux Klan in Colorado, pp. 174-179;
Christopher N. Cocoltchos in "The Invisible Government and the Visible Community," pp. 61 1 -634.
94
Chalmers, Hooded Americanism, p. 1 25.
95
San Francisco Chronicle, October 27, 1933.
96
Visalia Times-Delta, October 27, 1933.
97
Christopher N. Cocoltchos, "The Invisible Empire and the Search for the Orderly Community: The Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim, California." pp. 97-120,
98
Cary McWilliams, Factories in the Field: The Story of Migratory Farm Labor in California (Santa Barbara: Pere- grine, 1971).
99
William L Preston's Vanishing Landscapes: Land and Life in the Tulare Lake Basin (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1981)
Annie R. Mitchell, The Way it Was: The Colorful History of Tulare County (Fresno, CA: Panorama West Publishing, 1 976)
Historical Landmarks in Tulare County (Fresno, CA: Panorama West Publishing, 1983).
100
Benjamin F. Gilbert, "The Confederate Minority in California," California Historical Society Quarterly, xx (June 1941): 160-164.
101
Ibid.
102
Richard Maxwell Brown, Strain of Violence: Historical Studies of American Violence and Vigilantism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), pp. 306-307.
103
Richard B. Rice, et al. The Elusive Eden: A New/History of California (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988).
"The Confrontation at Mussel Slough," p. 222.
Brown. Strain of Violence, do. 306-307.
104
Rice, "The Confrontation at Mussel Slough," p. 236,
Preston, Vanishing Landscapes, p. 131.
105
Kaweah Colony Jay O'Connell, Co-Operative Dreams: A History of the Kaweah colony (Van Nuys, CA: Raven River Press, 1999.
Robert V. Hine, California's Utopian Colonies (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library Press, 1953), p. 78-100.
106
Tom G. Hall, "California Populism at the Grass-Roots: The Case of Tulare County, 1892," Southern California Quarterly, XLIX (Fall, 1969): 193-204
Michael Magliari, "Populism, Steamboats, and the Octopus: Trans- portation Rates and Monopoly in California's Wheat Regions, 1890-1896," Pacific Historical Review LVII (November 1989): 459-469.
107
Preston s Vanish- ing Landscapes, particularly, pp. 164-210.
Visalia Daily Times, April 5, 1921; April 29, 1923;
Visalia Times-Delta, June 9, 1928.
108
Preston, Vanishing Landscapes, pp. 173-174.
110
Visalia Daily Times, March 8, 9, 11, 31, 1922;
Tulare Advance, March 5, 11, 12, 1922;
Tulare Register, April 25, 25, 1922;
Porterville Recorder, March 8, 9, 11, 1922.
111
Tulare Advance, March 11, 1922;
Tulare Daily Register, April 21, May 3, 8, 1922;
Visalia Morning Delta, April 13, 1922;
Visalia Daily Times, May 1, 6, 17, 1922;
Porterville Recorder, April 19, May 3, 4, August 5, November 28, 1922.
Lindsay Gazette, May 12, 1922;
Terra Bella News, as reprinted in the Woodlake Echo, May 19, 1922;
Terra Bella News, June 15, 1923;
Woodlake Echo, June 20, 1924;
Pixley Enterprise, October 5, 1923.
112
Visalia Times-Delta, [n.d. с 1938-39]
113
Jackson in The Ku Klux Klan in the City, 1915-1930, p. 193.
114
Ibid.
115
Visalia Times-Delta, January 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28 19, 1986.
"Klan's location is not pleas- ing" which appeared on January 16, 1986.
Klan would "not [be] moving the Visalia," Visalia Times-Delta, January 21, 1986.
116
Robert A. Goldberg, "Denver: Queen City of the Colorado Realm";
Shawn Lay, "Imperial Outpost on the Border: El Paso's Frontier Klan No. 100";
Christopher N. Cocoltchos, "The Invis- ible Empire and the Search for the Orderly Community: The Ku Klux Klan in Anaheim, California";
Larry R. Gerlach, "A Battle of Empires: The Klan in Salt Lake City";
Eckard V. Toy, "Robe and Gown: The Ku Klux Klan in Eugene, Oregon";
David A. Horowite, "Order, Solidarity, and Vigilance: The Ku Klux Klan in La Grande, Oregon,"
117
Larry R. Gerlach, "A Battle of Empires: The Klan in Salt Lake City," in ibid.
Shawn Lay, "Toward A New Historical Appraisal of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s" p. 219,
118
Leonard J. Moore, "Historical interpretations of the 1920s Klan: The Traditional View and Recent Revisions," in ibid.
Ibid., pp. 29-30.
120
Shawn Lay, "Toward A New Historical Appraisal of the Ku Иих Klan of the 1920s," p. 220, in ibid.
121
William Rintoul, Oildorado, particularly the chapter entitled "Hooded Terror," pp. 165-185.
122
Shawn Lay, "Imperial Outpost on the Border: El Paso's Frontier Klan No. 100," pp. 67-95;
Leonard J. Moore, "Historical interpre- tations of the 1920s Иап: The Traditional View and Recent Revisions," pp. 31-32.
123
Chalmers, Hooded Americanism, p. 125.
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