NOTES

NOTES
1
Francis Lieber, A Popular Essay on Subjects of Penal Law (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1838), p. 37.
2
An Act Providing for Securing the State Prison Convicts," Statutes of California (n.p.: State Printer, 1851), pp. 427-430;
Clare V. McKanna, Jr., 'The Origins of San Quentin, 1851-1880," California History, 66 (March 1987): 49-54.
3
"Report of the Joint Committee on State Prison Affairs," California Legislature Journal, 9th Session, Appendix (Sacramento: State Printer, 1858), pp. 13-15.
4
"State Prison System of California, Immigration" (San Francisco: n.p., February 1, 1857) [pamphlet located at Bancroft Library, U.C. Berkeley], pp. 1-8;
California Chronicle (San Francisco), February 14, 1857, 2:1-2;
San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin, March 5, 1857, 3:5.
5
Ward M. McAfee, "San Quentin: The Forgotten Issue of California's Political History in the 1850s," Southern California Quarterly, forthcoming.
6
Lucile Eaves, A History of California Labor Legislation, With An Introductory Sketch of the San Francisco Labor Movement (Berkeley: The University Press, 1910), pp. 256-258, 361.
7
Ibid., p. 359.
8
Natoma Water and Mining Co., Memorial of the Natoma Water and Mining Co., to the Committees on State Prison of the Senate and Assembly of the State of California (Sacra- mento: State Printer, 1870), p. 1;
Elsey Hurt, California State Government, An Outline of Its Administrative Organization From 1850 to 1 936 (Sacramento: State Printer, 1936), p. 182;
Tirey L. Ford, California State Prisons, Their History, Development and Management (San Francisco: The Star Press, 1910), pp. 28-29.
9
Daily Alta California, December 7, 1881, 1:2.
10
Kenneth Lamott, Chronicles of San Quentin, The Biography of a Prison (New York: David McKay Co., 1961), p. 131;
Winfield J. Davis, ed., History of Political Conventions in California, 1849-1892 (Sacramento: California State Library, 1893), pp. 380, 385, 396;
Frank M. Fahey, "The Legislative Background of the California Constitutional Con- vention of 1878-1879" (Master's Thesis, Stanford University, 1947), p. 90;
E.B. Willis and P.K. Stockton, stenographers, Debates and Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the State of California, Convened at the City of Sacramento, Saturday, September 28, 1978 (3 vols., Sacramento: State Printer, 1880), I: 362; II: 708, 1034-1037; III: 1516.
11
E.T. Hiller, "Labor Unionism and Convict Labor," Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science. 5 (March 1915): 878.
12
"Memorial From the Mechanics' State Council In Reference To State Prison Labor," California Legislature Journal, 20th Session, Appendix (6 vols., Sacramento: State Printer, 1874), VI (Document #5): 5
Extracts From the Codes and Statutes Relating to State Prisons and Prisoners, Compiled From the Constitution of California, the Codes, and Statutes in Force; With an Opinion of the Attorney -General on the Subject of Credits to Second-term Convicts, August 23, 1882 (Sacramento: State Printer, 1882), p. 17;
Daily Alta California, September 30, 1873, 1:4; April 4, 1882, 1:5.
13
Daily Alta California, December 7, 1881, 2:1.
14
Ibid., December 14, 1881, 1:2.
15
Ibid., December 16, 1881, 1:2.
16
Ibid., December 3, 1881,2:1;
The Morning Call (San Francisco), March 27, 1884,5:3;
George Washington Cable, The Silent South, Together With the Freedmen 's Case in Equity and the Convict Lease System (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1907/1883), 178-179;
Louis N. Robinson, Penology in the United States (Philadelphia: John С Winston Co., 1921), p. 171.
17
Eaves, California Labor Legislation, pp. 364-366, 376;
The Morning Call, June 14, 1886, 3:7;
"Biennial Message of Governor George Stoneman," California Legislature Journal, 27th Session, Appendix (Sacramento: State Printer, 1887), p. 11;
"Second Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the State of California, 1885 and 1886," Ibid., pp. 118-138;
California State Penological Commission, Report of the California State Penological Commission, In Compliance With Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 5, Passed February 16, 1885 (Sacramento: State Printer, 1887), pp. 5, 126-130.
18
U.S. Bureau of Labor, Twentieth Annual Report of the Commission of Labor, 1905, Convict Labor (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1906), pp. 628-629;
Brainard F. Smith, Comp., Compendium of the Statutes and Codes, and Other Matters Relating to the State Prisons and Prisoners, Etc. (Sacramento: State Printer, 1903), p. 15.
19
Frederick S. Wythe, Comp. , The Prison Laws of California (Sacramento: State Printer, 1909), 86;
Eaves, California Labor Legislation, pp. 365-368.
20
Daily Alta California, December 11, 1881, 1:3;
Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1905, Convict Labor, 170-171;
P.B. Elderkin, "The State Prisons of California-Folsom," Overland Monthly, Second Series, 34 (September 1899): 257-264;
Buford Danville Whitlock, "Making Little Ones Out of Big Ones," Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, 85 (May 1927): 143-144;
Eugene Lee, Yeggmen in the Shadows (London: Arthur H. Stockwell, Ltd., 1935), pp. 19-27.
21
Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1905, Convict Labor, p. 631;
Smith, сотр., Compendium of the Statutes and Codes, pp. 30-31.
22
San Francisco Call, January 23, 1911, 4:5.
23
Ibid.;
Wythe, Comp., Prison Laws of California, pp. 84-85.
24
James A. Johnston, Prison Life is Different (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1937), p. 122.
25
Ibid., pp. 128-132;
Wythe, сотр., Prison Laws of California, p. 100;
"Prisoners and Good Roads," The Nation, 98 (April 23, 1914), pp. 453-454.
26
Mark E. Noon, сотр., The Prison Laws of California (San Quentin: San Quentin Press, 1932), pp. 181, 185-186
27
Donald Lowrie, My Life in Prison (New York: Mitchell Kennerley, 1912), pp. 63-69;
The Prison Reform League, Crime and Criminals (Los Angeles: Prison Reform League Publishing Co., 1910), pp. 55, 59-60, 78;
Leo L. Stanley, M.D., 'Tuberculosis in San Quentin," (Reprint of paper read before the General Medicine Section of the California Medical Assiciation at the 67th Annual Session, Pasadena, May 9-12, 1938, located at Bancroft Library, Berkeley), pp. 9-10;
Walter Wilson, Forced Labor in the United States (New York: International Publishers, 1933), pp. 37-57.
28
F. Emory Lyon, "Idleness in the Prisons," American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology Journal, 7 (July 1916): 269-273;
Lloyd Thorpe, Men to Match the Mountains (Seattle: Craftsman and Met Press, 1972), pp. 40-41.
29
Don C. Seitz, "California Salvages Sinners," The Outlook, 146 (June 8, 1927): 186;
Ben H. Milliken, "Four Years' Experience With Convict Wage," California Highways, 14 (August 1927): 3, 6;
Elford Eddy, "Hope for the Convict: How the State of California is Turning Prisoners Into Road Workers and Saving Money," Sunset Magazine, 52 (June 1924): 20-21, 60;
Department of Commerce, Prison Industries (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1929), p. 24;
Charles F. Sharkey and George D. Patterson, Jr., comps., Laws Relating to Prison Labor in the United States as of July 1, 1933 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1933), p. 14.
30
San Francisco Chronicle, February 14, 1930, 24:1
31
California Taxpayers' Association, Report on Prison Labor in California (Los Angeles: California Taxpayers' Association, 1930), pp. 21-22, 26-27, 32, 35-36, 41.
32
Milton Chemin, "Convict Road Work in California" (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, U.C., Berkeley, 1937), pp. 165-169;
U.S. Prison Industries Reorganization Administration, The Prison Problem in California (Washington, D.C .: Government Printing Office, 1937), pp. 23, 30-31.
33
Lloyd L. Voigt, History of California State Correctional Administration From 1930 to 1948 (San Francisco: n.p., 1949), p. 41;
Senate, California Legislature, Report of Senate Interim Committee on Penal and Correctional Institutions to the Senate, California Legislature, 55th Session, 1943 (Sacramento: State Printer, 1943), p. 21.
34
Clinton T. Duffy (as told to Dean Jennings), The San Quentin Story (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1950), pp. 159-160.
35
Ibid., p. 161;
State of California, Department of Corrections, Rules and Regulations of the Director of Corrections, Revised July, 1975 (Sacramento: Department of Corrections, 1975), pp. 15-17.
36
Duffy, San Quentin Story, pp. 203-205, 243-247;
"Government to Enlist Convicts to Help in Winning the War," Current Opinion, 64 (March 1918): 220-221;
San Francisco Chronicle, April 12, 1942, 11:4; ibid., November 14, 1942, 10:2-4;
ibid., December 5, 1944, 4:2;
The News (California State Prison at San Quentin), July 16, 1942, 1:4; Senate, California Legislature, Report of Senate Interim Committee. . ., 55th Session, 1943, pp. 13-14.
37
Final Report of Governor's Investigation Committee on Penal Affairs, Submitted to the Honorable Earl Warren, Governor of California, January 21, 1944 (Sacramento: State Printer, 1944), pp. 16, 18, 20;
Chapter 2, Sections 5000, 5077, 5079, Statutes of California, Third Extra Session of the Fifty-Fifth Legislature, 1944 (Sacramento: State Printer, 1945), pp. 13, 16;
Richard A. McGee, "California Develops New Correctional Program," State Government, 19 (April 1946): 104-107, 119.
38
California Department of Corrections, The California Correctional System (N.p.: California Department of Corrections, 1946), pp. 1-3.
39
California State Employees Association, California Prisons in Crisis, A CSEA Report, September 24, 1971 (Sacramento, CSEA, 1971), p. 4.
40
Lamott, Chronicles of San Quentin, p. 253.
41
Chapter 1137, Statutes of California, 1946-194 7 (Sacramento: State Printer, 1947), pp. 2578-2581;
California Department of Corrections, Business Administration and Industries in State Correctional Service (San Quentin: The Graphic Arts Training Center, 1959), pp. 112-113;
Theodore J. Lowi, The End of Liberalism: Ideology, Policy, and the Crisis of Public Authority (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1969), p. 89.
42
Samuel Gompers, "Unions and Prisons," Harper's Weekly, 58 (April 18, 1914): 28-29;
"Prison System vs. Free Labor," The Garment Worker, Official Journal of the United Garment Workers of America, 24 (May 8, 1925): 1:1-2;
Hiller, "Systems of Control of Convict Labor," pp. 261, 265;
Sections 5091 and 5092 of Chapter 1137, Statutes of California, 19461947, pp. 2580-2581;
California, Auditor-General and the Legislative Analyst, A Review of the Economic Efficiency of California Correctional Industries (Sacramento: n.p., 1971), pp. 4-6;
California Blue Book, 1975 (Sacramento: State Printer, 1975), p. 484.
43
Chapter 1549, Article 1, Sections 2800-2813, Statutes of California (Sacramento: State Printer, 1982), pp. 6039-6044.
44
Ralph W. England, "New Departures in Prison Labor," The Prison Journal, 41 (Spring 1961): 26;
Manuel Lopez-Rey, "Some Considerations on the Character and Organization of Prison Labor,' Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 49 (May-June 1958): 14, 17, 19, 26-28;
Jack Schauer, "Work and Imprisonment: An Overview of the Changing Role of Prison labor in American Prisons," The Prison Journal, 62 (September 1982): 4.
45
Norman Fenton, Treatment in Prison: How the Family Can Help, The Family Counseling Project (Sacramento: Department of Corrections, 1959), pp. 42-44.
46
The Prison Problem in California, pp. 33-34;
Duffy, San Quentin Story, pp. 203-205.
47
Thorpe, Men to Match the Mountains, pp. 187-197.
48
California Department of Corrections, "California's Honor Camp Program, Con- ducted by the California Department of Corrections" (Typewritten MS, dated July 8, 1954, located in Government Documents Room, State Library, Sacramento), p. 1;
California Department of Corrections, No Cell for Inmate Malone: A New Approach in Corrections (N.p.: Department of Corrections, 1963), p. i.
49
California Department of Corrections, California Conservation Camp Program: A Review, January 18, 1963 (N.p.: Department of Corrections, 1963), p. 2;
California Senate, Report of the Senate Committee on Correctional Facilities (Sacramento: State Printer, 1961), p. 90;
California Department of Corrections, Progress Report, 1967-1968 (Sacra- mento: Department of Corrections, 1968), p. 5; Thorpe, Men to Match the Mountains, p. 196.
50
Richard A. Bass, An Analysis of the California Department of Corrections Work- Furlough Program in Fiscal Year 1969-1970 [California Department of Corrections Research Report No. 57] (Sacramento: California Department of Corrections, 1975), pp. 3-5;
California Department of Corrections, General Information, Department of Corrections (N.p.: Department of Corrections, 1976), p. 54.
51
Pitts и Reagan, 14 Cal. App. 3d 112 (1971); Bass, Work Furlough Program, pp. 6, 28;
Jessica Mitford, Kind and Usual Punishment, The Prison Business (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1973), pp. 208-212.
52
Bass, Work Furlough Program, pp. 46, 49, 50-52;
California Department of Corrections, California Prisoners, 1980, Summary Statistics of Felon Prisoners and Parolees (Sacra- mento: Department of Corrections, 1980), p. 170.
53
Staff of the Assembly Criminal Justice Committee, California Corrections: The Slippery Slope, A Report, 1981 (Sacramento: Assembly Publications Office, 1981), pp. 18, 20, 21;
Recommendations and Report to the Legislature; Submitted to the Joint Rules Committee of the California Legislature by the Citizens Advisory Committee on Alternatives to Incarceration, June, 1980 (Sacramento: Joint Rules Committee, 1980), p. 23.
54
George E. Sexton, Franklin С . Farrow and Barbara J. Auerback, "The Private Sector and Prison Industries," National Institute of Justice, Research in Brief (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, August, 1985), p. 1;
Warren E. Burger (Chief Justice of the United States), "Prison Industries: Turning Warehouses Into Factories With Fences," Public Administration Review, 45 (November, 1985): 754-747;
State Budget of California For Support and Local Assistance, 1970-1971, Submitted by Ronald Reagan, Governor, to the California Legislature, 1970 Regular Session (Sacramento: State Printer, 1970), A-6;
Governor's Budget For 19801981, Submitted by Edmund G. Brown, Jr., Governor, to the California Legislature, 1979-1980, Regular Session (Sacramento: State Printer, 1980), A-7;
Governor's Budget Summary, 1988-1989, Submitted By George Deukmejian, Governor, State of California To The California Legislature, 1987-1988 Regular Session (Sacramento: State Printer, 1988), p. 6.
55
California State Assembly, Report on the Economic Status and Rehabilitation Value of California Correctional Industries, Ways and Means Subcommittee on Criminal Justice (Sacramento: State Printer, February 1969), pp. 1-2, 4-7, 9, 14, 20-22, 24-25, 26-34, 41-43.
56
Eve Pell et al., eds., Maximum Security, Letters From California 's Prisons (New York: E.P.DuttonandCo., 1972), pp. 191, 197-198, 200;
The Editors of Ramparts Magazine and Frank Browning, eds., Prison Life, A Study of the Explosive Conditions in America's Prisons (New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1972), p. 96;
Folsom Prison Convicts, The Hardened Criminal (Millbrae, CA: Celestial Arts, 1976), pp. 93-104.
57
Approach Associates, Final Report: California Legislature's Study of Correctional Needs, 8 vols. (Oakland, CA: Approach Associates, 1978), IV: 7-10, 13-15, 17, 23-24, 27-28, 33, 36;
California Legislature, Joint Advisory Committee on State Prison Facilities and Incarceration Alternatives, Assemblyman Art Torres, Chairman, December 1, 1978 (Sacramento: n.p., 1978), pp. iii, 22;
National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, Analysis of Prison Industries and Recommendations for Change (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1978), pp. 4, 156-158;
Dentón Marks and Aidan Vining, "Prison Labor Markets: The Supply Issue," Policy Sciences, 19 Quly 1986): 83-106,
John A. Conley, "Prison Production and Profit: Reconsidering the Importance of Prison Industries," Journal of Social History, 14 (Winter 1980): 269-270.
58
Chapter 1549, Article 1, Section 2802, Statutes of California (Sacramento: State Printer, 1982), pp. 6039-6040.
State of California, Youth and Adult Correctional Agency, Department of the Youth Authority, Biennial Report, Program Description and Statistical Summary, 1984 and 1985 (Sacramento: State Printer, 1986), pp. 5-6;
Criminal Justice Associates, Private Sector Involvement in Prison-Based Businesses: A National Assessment (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office/U.S. Department of Justice, 1985), p. 24.
59
Los Angeles Times, January 25, 1989, part I, 1.
60
California Department of Corrections. Report to the Legislature, Work Programs in Prison Industries (Sacramento: Department of Corrections, 1984), p. 6;
Prison Industry Authority, California 's Prison Industry Authority: Factories With Fences (N.p.: n.p., 1987), p. 1;
California Prison Industry Authority, A nnual Report, Fiscal Year, 1985-1986 (N.p.: n.p., n.d.), pp. 2, 21.
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