NOTES

NOTES
1
Galen M. Fisher, "Our Two Japanese-American Policies," The Christian Century, 60 (August 25, 1943): 962
2
Ibid., p. 963
3
Carey McWilliams, Prejudice, Japanese-Americans: Symbol of Racial Intolerance (Bos- ton: Little, Brown and Co., 1944), pp. 141-147.
4
Roger Daniels, Concentration Camps USA: Japanese Americans and World War II (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971), p. 73
5
Eugene V. Rostow, "The Japanese American Cases—A Disaster," The Yale Law Journal, 54 (June 1945): 494, 496-97;
Morton Grodzins, Americans Betrayed, Politics and the Japanese Evacuation (Chicago: University of Chicago press, 1949), pp. 298-300, 366;
James A. Michener, Hawaii (New York: Random House, 1959), pp. 740, 768;
Allan R. Bosworth, America's Concentration Camps (New York: Norton, 1967) p. vi; Leonard Pitt, ed., California Controversies, Major Issues in the History of the State (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1968), p. 171;
H. Brett Melendy, The Oriental Americans (New York: Twayne, 1972), pp. 157, 161;
Dennis M. Ogawa, Kodomo no tame ni, For the Sake of the Children, The Japanese American Experience in Hawaii (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1978), pp. 282-285;
Walton Bean and James J. Rawls, California, An Interpretive History, (4th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), p. 373
6
Gwenfread Allen, Hawaii's War Years, 19411945 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1950), pp. 177, 183;
Roger Bell, Last Among Equals, Hawaiian Statehood and American Politics (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1984), pp. 76-78, 81, 83, 86.
7
John P. Frank, "Ex Parte Milligan versus the Five Companies: Martial Law in Hawaii," Columbia Law Review, 44 (September 1944): 646-648
8
"The Discussions to Relocate the North Americanjapanese: Another Look," Pacific Historical Review, 51 (February 1982): 71-77
9
Robert L. Shivers, Cooperation of the Various Racial Groups With Each Other and With the Constituted Authorities Before and After December 7, 1941, Statement Presented Before Sub-Committee on Statehood, United States House of Representatives, at Iolani Palace, January 15, 1946 (Honolulu: s.n., 1946), pp. 2-12
Andrew W. Lind, Hawaii's Japanese, An Experiment In Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1946), pp. 67-69;
Pearl Harbor Attack, Pearl Harbor Attack: Hearings Before the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Part 39 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946), p. 13.
10
Allen, Hawaii's War Years, pp. 79-80, 82-83;
Congressional Record, 79th Cong., 2nd sess., Appendix, A4670;
Colonel George W. Bicknell, "Security Measures In Hawaii During World War II" (Typed unpublished MSS, University of Hawaii, circa 1944, Reel 54, item 5), p. 36.
11
Frank, "Martial Law in Hawaii," pp. 646-648
12
Allen, Hawaii's War Years, pp. 146-148, 219-220, 246, 398;
Col. Bicknell, "Security Measures in Hawaii," pp. 56, 61 , 65-66, 74;
J. Garner Anthony, Hawaii Under Army Rule (Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1975), pp. 3-39;
Fred L. Israel, "Militaryjustice in Hawaii, 1941-1944," Pacific Historical Review, 36 (August 1967): 247-251.
13
Anthony, Army Rule, pp. 141, 155;
Frank, "Martial Law in Hawaii," pp. 651-657;
Stetson Conn, Rose C. Engelman, Byron Fairchild, United States Army in World War II, The Western Hemisphere, Guardingthe United States and Its Outposts (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1964), pp. 151-152.
14
Luis Morton, United States Army in World War II, The War in the Pacific, Strategy and Command: The First Two Years (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962), p. 121
Stetson Conn, et al, Guardingthe U.S., pp. 174-175, 179, 180.
15
Cecil Hengy Coggins, "The Japanese Americans in Hawaii," Harper's Magazine, 187 (June 1943): 76;
Allen, Hawaii's War Years, pp. 139-141, 264, 270-271, 361;
Blake Clark, "U.S. Soldiers with Japanese Faces," Reader's Digest, 42 (February 1943): 125-127;
Summary of Proceedings, Third Territorial Conference of Morale and Emergency Service Committees, March 24-26, 1945 (Honolulu, s.n., 1945), pp. 39-40, 43;
"What People in Hawaii Are Saying and Doing," (Mimeographed sheets at University of Hawaii), Report No. 4 (August 1, 1944), p. 12
Ralph S. Kuykendall and A. Grove Day, Hawaii: A History, From Polynesian Kingdom to Polynesian State (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1961), p. 267.
16
Robert S. Rankin, "Hawaii Under Martial Law," Journal of Politics, 5 (August 1943): 279;
Andrew W. Lind, "The Japanese In Hawaii Under War Conditions," Institute of Pacific Relations, Eighth Conference, American Council Paper No. 5 (Honolulu: s.n., 1942), pp. 12-13, 15-16.
17
Pearl Harbor Attack: Hearings, Part 38, pp. 1444-1445.
18
John Adrian Balch, Shall the Japanese Be Allowed to Dominate Hawaii? (Honolulu: s.n., 1942), p. 9
19
Congressional Record, 79th Cong., 2nd sess., Appendix, A4669-A4670, A4673; Anthony, Army Rule, pp. 20-21, 105-109, 191-199
20
Col. Bicknell, "Security Measures in Hawaii, p. 54; Lind, Hawaii's Japanese, pp. 38-45;
Shivers, Cooperation of the Various Racial Groups, p. 11;
YukikoKimura, "Rumor Among the Japanese," Social Process in Hawaii, 11 (May 1947): 90;
Morton, War in the Pacific, p. 141;
Allen, Hawaii's War Years, pp. 47-56, 59, 398;
Howard Costigan, "The Plight of the Nisei," The Nation, 154 (February 14, 1942): 185;
Blake Clark, "The Japanese in Hawaii," The New Republic, 107 (September 14, 1942): 308-310;
Lind, "Japanese in Hawaii Under War Conditions," pp. 8-9;
"The Stranger Within Our Gates," Time, 39 January 19, 1942): 12-13;
Rear Admiral Edwin T. Layton, USN (Ret.), with Captain Roger Pineau, USNR(Ret), and John Costello, "And I was There, "Pearl Harbor and Midway -Breaking the Secrets (New York: William Morrow and Co., 1985), pp. 146-148.
21
Edward К. Strong, The Second Generation Japanese Problem (New York: Arno Press, 1970, 1934), pp. 263-264;
Colleen Leahy Johnson, "The Principle of Generation Among the Japanese in Honolulu," Ethnic Groups, 1 (June 1976): 21-22;
"What People in Hawaii are Saying and Doing," Report No. 4, pp. 8-12;
John A. Rademaker, "Race Relations in Hawaii, 1946," Social Process in Hawaii, 11 (May 1949): 31, 32, 42;
William С Smith "Minority Groups in Hawaii," The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,223 (September, 1942): 41, 43-44;
Frank, "Martial Law in Hawaii," pp. 642-646.
22
Col. Bicknell, "Security Measures in Hawaii," pp. 54, 83-84
23
Yukiko Kimura, "Some Effects of the War Situation Upon the Alien Japanese In Hawaii," Social Process in Hawaii, 8 (November 1943): 18. 19. 22-24
24
Charles Fairman, "The Law of Martial Rule and National Emergency," Harvard Law Review, 55 June 1942): 1292-1293;
William Ewing, "Good Evening ___, " The Star-Bulletin Presents William Ewing (Honolulu: The Star Bulletin, 1943), pp. 45-47
Col. Bicknell, "Security Measures in Hawaii," p. 24
25
Grodzins, Americans Betrayed, p. 386n;
Bosworth, Concentration Camps, pp. 51-52;
Bill Hosokawa,JACL, In Quest of Justice (New York: W. Morrow, 1982), p. 142;
Michi Weglyn, Years of Infamy, The Untold Story of America's Concentration Camps (New York: W. Morrow, 1976), p. 52.
26
F.D.R.'s speech of December 9, 1941, in U.S. Government Printing Office, ed., Peace and War, United States Foreign Policy, 19311941 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943), p. 844;
Anthony, Army Rule, p. 154;
Honolulu Advertiser, January 16, 1942, 6:5-6; January 18, 1942, 18:1; January 23, 1942, 10:1;
Los Angeles Times, February 5, 1942, 1:2-3; February 6, 1942, 1:1.
27
Weglyn, Years of Infamy, p. 68;
Grodzins, Americans Betrayed, pp. 377-399;
Col. Bicknell, "Security Measures in Hawaii," p. 67.
28
Honolulu Advertiser, January 18, 1942, 18:1
29
Los Angeles Times, February 5, 1942, 1:2-3; February 6, 1942, 1:1-3, 6:1; February 7, 1942, 1:7-8.
30
U.S. Congress, Hearings Before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, 77th Congress, 2nd session, Parts 29, 30, and 31 (February 21 - March 12, 1942) (New York: Arno Press, 1978), pp. 10967, 11010-11012, 11235-11240, 11301-11307, 11327, 11363-11367, 11404-11406, 11434-11446, 11523-11524, 11642-11652, 11704-11706
Dillon S. Myer, Uprooted Americans, Thejapanese Americans and the War Relocation Authority During World War II (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1971), pp. xxiv, 18-19, 23-24;
Bradford Smith, A mericans From Japan (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1948), pp. 264-265.
31
Grodzins, Americans Betrayed, pp. 19-61;
Smith, A mericans From Japan, pp. 262-263.
32
Lind, Hawaii's Japanese, p. 58.
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