NOTES

NOTES
1
Leonard Pitt, "The Beginnings of Nativism in California," Pacific Historical Review, XXX (February 1961), 23-38,
Decline of the Californios, A Social History of the Spanish-Speaking California™, 1846-1890 (Berkeley, 1970), pp. 48-82;
Richard Henry Morefield, "Mexicans in the California Mines, 1848- 53," California Historical Quarterly, XXXV (March 1956), 37-46;
William Robert Kenny, "Mexican-American Conflict on the Mining Frontier, 1848-52," Journal of the West, VI (October 1967), 582-592;
Sister M. Colette Standart, "The Sonora Migration to California, 1848-1856: A Study in Prejudice," Southern California Quarterly, LVIII (Fall 1976), 333-357.
2
Roger Daniels and Spencer Olin, Jr., eds., Racism in California: A Reader in the History of Oppression (New York, 1972), p.ü.
Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (New York, 1965), p. 4.
3
Jose Francisco Velasco, Noticias Estadisticas del Estado de Sonora (Mexico City, 1850), p. 289.
4
Henry F. Dobyns, ed., Hepah, California! The Journal of Cave Johnson Couts, from Monterey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico to Los Angeles, California during the Years, 1848-1849 (Tucson, Arizona, 1961), p. 82.
5
El Sonorense, Periódico Oficial Del Estado Libre De Sonora (Ures, Sonora, Mexico, February 25, 1853).
6
Rodman W. Paul, California Gold (Cambridge, Mass., 1947), p. 48.
7
William Kelly, An Excursion to California with a Stroll through the Diggings, 2 vols. (London, 1851), II: 23.
Stephen L. Fowler, Journal of Stephen L. and James E. Fowler of East Hampton, Long Island, p. 30, MS, Bancroft Library,
8
William R. Ryan, Personal Adventures in Upper and Lower California, in 1848-9, 2 vols. (London, 1850), II: 296-297.
9
William R. Wheaton, Statement of Facts on Early California History, p. 6, MS, Bancroft Library.
10
Bennett Riley, Brevet Brig. Gen. U.S. Army and Governor of California, to Major-Gen. R. Jones, Adjutant-Gen, of the Army, August 30, 1849, in John Frost, History of the State of California (Auburn, California, 1853), p. 439.
Hubert H. Bancroft, History of California, 7 vols. (San Francisco, 1888), VI: 404.
11
Morefield, Mexicans in the California Mines, 1848-1853, p. 38.
San Francisco Alta California, September 18, Octo- ber 25, 1849.
12
Charles A. Kirkpatrick, Journal of 1849, p. 37, MS, Bancroft Library.
13
California, Statutes of the State of California, 1850, chapter 97, pp. 221-223.
14
Richard H. Peterson, Manifest Destiny in the Mines: A Cultural Interpreta- tion of Anti-Mexican Nativism in California, 1848-1853 (San Francisco, 1975), pp. 48-55,
"The Foreign Miners' Tax of 1850 and Mexicans in California: Exploitation or Expulsion?," Pacific Historian, XX (Fall 1976), 265-272.
Leonard M. Pitt, "The Foreign Miners' Tax of 1850: A Study of Nativism and Antinativism in Gold Rush California" (Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1955),
"The Beginnings of Nativism in California," Pacific Historical Review, pp. 23-38.
15
David J. Weber, ed., Foreigners in their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans (Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1973), p. 151.
16
Regarding the Mexicans, the Alta California on July 10, 1850,
17
William R. Kenny, "History of the Sonora Mining Region of California, 1848- 1860" (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1955), p. 275.
18
Bancroft, History of California, VI: 404;
Raymund F. Wood, California's Aqua Fria, the Early History of Mariposa County (Fresno, California, 1954), p. 61.
19
Abraham P. Nasatir, ed., A French Journalist in the California Gold Rush (Georgetown, California, 1964), p. 103.
20
Dale L. Morgan and James R. Scobie, eds., Three Years in California: William Perkins' Journal of Life at Sonora, 1849-1852 (Berkeley, 1964), p. 399.
21
Ibid., p. 154;
Herbert O. Lang, A History of Tuolumne County, California (San Francisco, 1882), p. 29;
George Enoch Jewet, Journal of 1849-1850, p. 27,
MS, Bancroft Library; Alta California, May 28, 1850.
22
Morgan and Scobie, eds., Perkins' Journal, pp. 154-155;
Alta California, May 24, June 3, 1850;
Stockton Times, June 1, 1850.
23
Lang, A History of Tuolumne County, p. 33.
24
Perkins' Journal, p. 181;
Alta California, June 3, 1850;
Rufus K. Wyllys, "The French of California and Sonora," Pacific Historical Review, I (1932), 341.
Charles H. Shinn, Mining Camps: A Study in American Frontier Government (New York, 1948; original publication, 1885), p. 203.
25
Perkins' Journal, p. 153;
Carey McWilliams, North from Mexico: The Spanish- Speaking People of the United States (Philadelphia, 1949), pp. 128-130.
26
Daniel B. Woods, Sixteen Months at the Gold' Diggings (New York, 1851), p. 142.
27
Jewet, Journal of 1849-1850, pp. 29-30.
Sonora, Tuolumne County, July 21, 1850,
28
Stockton Times, June 1, 1850,
Stockton Times, August 17, 1850.
29
California, Statutes, 1851, Chapter 108, p. 424.
30
Stockton Times, June 8, 22, 29, 1850;
Alta California, March 7, 10, 1851;
H. Hittell, History of California, 4 vols. (San Francisco, 1898), III: 708;
Bancroft, History of California, VI: 406;
W7illiam H. Ellison, A Self-Governing Dominion: California, 1849-1860 (Berkeley, 1950), pp. 126-127.
Attorney General vs. Henry M. Naglee, Janu- ary 15, 1851, Journal of the California State Senate, 1851, pp. 689-696.
31
Bancroft, History of California, VI: 406, n. 73.
Alta California, June 16, 1851
32
Carl I. Wheat, ed., The Shirley Letters from the California Mines, 1851-1852 (New York, 1949), pp. 140-141.
33
Perkins' Journal p. 326; Hittell, History of California, III: 712-725.
34
San Francisco Daily Herald, February 16, 1853;
El Sonorense, March 25, 1853.
Eric J. Hobsbawm, Bandits (New York, 1969).
35
El Siglo XIX (Mexico City, Mexico, February 17, 1853), reprinted in El Sonorense, April 8, 1853.
36
Pitt, The Decline of the Californios, pp. 67-68.
The Decline of the Californios, p. 53.
Richard H. Morefield, "The Mexican Adaptation in American California, 1846-1875" (Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1955).
37
California, Statutes, 1852, chapter 37, pp. 84-87.
Elmer C. Sandmeyer, The Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Urbana, Illinois, 1939), pp. 12-56;
Günther Barth, Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1850-1870 (Cambridge, Mass., 1964), especially pp. 129-156;
David V. DuFault, "The Chinese in the Mining Camps of California: 1848-1870," Southern California Quarterly, XLI (1959), 155-170.
38
Bancroft, History of California, VI: 402-403;
Victor M. Berthold, The Pioneer Steamer "California'': 1848-1849 (New York, 1932), p. 40.
39
Smith's announcement is quoted in Berthold, The Pioneer Steamer "Cali- fornia," p. 39.
40
George W. Meldrum, "The History of the Treatment of Foreign and Minority Groups in California, 1830-1860" (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, 1948), pp. 338-339, 341.
41
Riley to Jones, August 30, 1849, in Frost, History of the State of California, pp. 440-441.
42
Curtis A. Lindley, A Treatise on the American Law Relating to Mines and Mineral Lands within the Public Land States and Territories and Governing the Acquisition and Enjoyment of Mining Rights in Lands of the Public Domain (San Francisco, 1914; original publication, 1897)) I: 72-73, 91-92.
14 U.S. Statutes at Large (1865- 1867), p. 251.
43
Bancroft, History of California, VI: 403.
J. M. Guinn, "The Sonoran Migration," Annual Publication, Historical Society of Southern California, VIII (1909-1911), 32, and Standart, "The Sonora Migration to California," p. 353, n. 28.
44
Leonard Kip, California Sketches with Recollections of the Gold Mines (Al- bany, New York, 1850), p. 51.
45
Hinton R. Helper, Land of Gold (Baltimore, 1855), p. 179.
46
Thomas Butler King, Report, appended to Bayard Taylor, Eldorado, or, Adventures in the Path of Empire, 2 vols. (New York, 1850), II: 244-245.
47
Velasco, Noticias Estadísticas del Estado de Sonora, pp. 290-291.
Paul, California Gold, p. 118.
48
Nasatir, ed., A French Journalist in the California Gold Rush, p. 128.
49
Ezra Bourne, Diary of an Overland Journey to California in 1850, pp. 34-35, MS, Bancroft Library.
50
Walter Colton, Three Years in California (New York, 1850), pp. 367-368.
51
Foreign Miners' Tax in 1850
Journal of the Senate of the State of California, 1850, p. 496.
52
Kevin Starr, Americans and the California Dream, 1850- 1915 (New York, 1973), pp. 3-48;
James D. Hart, American Images of Spanish California (Berkeley, 1960), especially p. 19;
David J. Langum, "Californios and the Image of Indolence," Western Historical Quarterly, IX (April 1978), 181-196;
Ralph Mann, "The Americanization of Arcadia: Images of Hispanic and Gold Rush California," American Studies, XIX (Spring 1978), 5-19;
Harry Clark, "Their Pride, Their Manners, and Their Voices: Sources of the Traditional Portrait of the Early Calif ornians," California Historical Quarterly, LIII (Spring 1974), 71-82.
53
Thomas Jefferson Farnham, Life, Adventures, and Travels in California (New York, 1849; original publication, 1846), p. 363
54
Alfred Robinson, "Sketch of California," Fishers National Magazine and Industrial Record, III (June 1846), 39-40;
Life in California Before the Conquest (San Francisco, 1925; original publication, 1846), p. 240.
55
James D. Hart, "The Education of Richard Henry Dana, Jr.," New England Quarterly, IX (March 1936), 3-25.
56
Bancroft, History of California, III: 413.
Forbes, California: A History of Upper and Lower California, written by a British consul to Mexico,
Forbes, California (San Francisco, 1919, reprint ed.), pp. 155, 265.
57
Richard Henry Dana, Two Years Before the Mast (New York, 1936, reprint ed.), p. 179.
58
Ibid., pp. 177-178.
59
Bernarr Cresap, "Early California as Described by Edward О. С Ord," Pacific Historical Review, XXI (November 1952), 333.
Edward О. С Ord, The City of the Angels and the City of the Saints, ed. Neal Harlow (San Marino, California, 1978).
60
Albert K. Weinberg, Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expan- sionism in American History (Baltimore, 1935), p. 111.
61
Frank Soule, The Annals of San Francisco (New York, 1855), pp. 471-472.
62
Alonzo Delano, Across the Plains and Among the Diggings (New York, 1936), p. 157.
63
William Stanton, The Leopard's Spots: Scientific Attitudes toward Race in America, 1815-1859 (Chicago, 1960), pp. 43-44, 66-68, 81, 158-159, 160, 190- 191.
Raymund A. Paredes, "The Origins of Anti-Mexican Sentiment in the United States," New Scholar, VI (1977), 158-160.
64
Farnham, Life, Adventures, and Travels in California, p. 413
65
Starr, Americans and the California Dream, p. 19.
66
Stockton Times, April 6, 1850.
Gene Brack, "Mexican Opinion, American Racism, and the War of 1846," Western Historical Quarterly, I (April 1970), especially pp. 166-174.
67
Wheat, ed., The Shirley Letters, p. 158.
68
Chauncey L. Canfield, The Diary of a Forty-Niner (Boston, 1920), p. 42.
69
Ephraim D. Adams, The Power of Ideals in American History (New Haven, Conn., 1913), p. 82.
70
Alice Felt Tyler, Freedom's Ferment: Phases of American Social History from the Colonial Period to the Outbreak of the Civil War (New York, 1962; original publication, 1944), p. 365.
71
Ibid., pp. 365-366;
Richard Hofstadter, The Para- noid Style in American Politics and Other Essays (New York, 1967), pp. 20-21.
72
Ray Allen Billington, The Protestant Crusade, 1800-1860: A Study of the Origins of American Nativism (New York, 1952), p. 280.
Journal, p. 281.
73
Charles Spurlin, "American Attitudes in the Mexican-American War," Military History of Texas and the Southwest, XII (Fall 1975), 84-92.
74
Pitt, "The Beginnings of Nativism in California," p. 29.
Contemporary accounts are available in the Stockton Times, June 1, 1850; Je wet, Journal, p. 28.
75
Ferol Egan, The El Dorado Trad: The Story of the Gold Rush Routes across Mexico (New York, 1970), p. 280.
76
Glenn S. Dumke, "Across Mexico in '49," Pacific Historical Review, XVIII (February 1949), 35.
77
Robert Beck, The Overland Diary of Robert Beck, Pennsylvania to Califor- nia via Mexico and Return 1849-1850, p. 55, MS, Bancroft Library.
78
Glenn S. Dumke, ed., Mexican Gold Trail, the Journal of a Forty-Niner (San Marino, California, 1945), pp. 100-101.
79
Ralph P. Bieber, ed., Southern Trails to California in 1849 (Glendale, Cali- fornia, 1937), p. 185.
Couts' Journal, p. 15.
80
Octavius T. Howe, Argonauts of '49 (Cambridge, Mass., 1923), p. 29.
81
Dorothy H. Huggins, ed., "To California through Texas and Mexico, the Diary and Letters of Thomas B. Eastland and Joseph G. Eastland, his Son," California Historical Society Quarterly, XVIII (June 1939), 126.
82
Raymund A. Paredes, "The Mexican Image in American Travel Litera- ture, 1831-1869," New Mexico Historical Review, LII (January 1977), 5-29.
David J. Weber, "a negative stereotype of Mexicans was articulated
Mexico City after 1821."
Weber, "Stereotyping of Mexico's Far Northern Frontier," in An Awakened Minority: The Mexican-Americans, ed. Manuel Servin (Beverly Hills, California, 1974; first edition, 1970), p. 21.
Paredes, "The Origins of Anti-Mexican Sentiment in the United States," pp. 139-165.
Harry Bernstein, Making an Inter-American Mind (Gainesville, Florida, 1961), p. 4.
Philip Wayne Powell, Tree of Hate: Propaganda and Prejudices Affecting United States Relations with the Hispanic World (New York, 1971), p. 118;
Cecil Robinson, With the Ears of Strangers: The Mexican in American Literature (Tucson, 1963);
Weber, ed., Foreigners in their Native Land, pp. 59-60.
83
Kelly, An Excursion to California with a Stroll through the Diggings, II: 23.
84
Walter Fogel, Mexican Illegal Alien Workers in the United States (Los Angeles, 1977);
Richard G. Arellano (Deputy Asst. Sec. for Inter-American Affairs), "Department Testifies on Undocumented Aliens," Department of State Bulletin, LXXVII (Octo- ber 31, 1977), 592-594;
"Controversy over Proposed Amnesty for Illegel Aliens, Pro and Con," Congressional Digest, LVI (October, 1977), 225-256;
"Border Crisis, Illegal Aliens out of Control?," U.S. News and World Report, LXXXII (April 25, 1977), 33-39;
"Getting their Slice of Paradise," Time, CIX (May 2, 1977), 26-32;
" U.S. News and World Report, LXXXVI (January 29, 1979), 38-42.
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