Following the Mexican victory at Puebla on May 5, 1862, Mexicans in California formed patriotic assemblies, juntas patrióticas, to provide support to Mexico's defense against the French intervention. Between 1863 and 1866, eight women's organizations, juntas patrióticas de señoras, were formed. Their leadership, rhetoric, fund-raising, and extension to other causes indicate that Latinas in California were significantly informed, politicized, and independent.
"The Men Were Left Astonished": Mexican Women in las Juntas Patrióticas de Señoras, 1863–1866
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Paul Bryan Gray, David E. Hayes-Bautista, Cynthia L. Chamberlin; "The Men Were Left Astonished": Mexican Women in las Juntas Patrióticas de Señoras, 1863–1866. Southern California Quarterly 13 June 2012; 94 (2): 161–192. doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/scq.2012.94.2.161
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