The diary of Nora Kreps, a young Anglo teacher of adult Americanization in the Imperial Valley, 1923-1924, reveals not only her own attitudes toward immigrant cultures and race, class relations, and gender and sexuality, but those on which the Americanization program was based. Her account, written at the request of the Survey of Race Relations at Stanford University, offers us a window into the complicated racial hierarchy of the region. Kreps' candid remarks about her students and her contacts with the community's elites uncover immigrant and African American agency in pursuit of upward mobility as well as the prejudices and goals of the local agribusiness-dominated society. In the mid-1920s₁ in a wave of nativist sentiment, Kreps' observations were swept aside. Now rediscovered, they provide a valuable tool for understanding the complex social and cultural interactions in the early twentiethcentury Imperial Valley.

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