This study features the interpretative framing and publication history of Frederick Douglass's 2 January 1893 Haiti orations. Beginning with the initial accounts and discussions of the speeches carried in white and African American newspapers, then moving to their publication in pamphlet form, I explore the rhetorical consequences of authors' and editors' efforts to reproduce, interpret, praise, criticize, frame, and reframe Douglass's words in the months following the delivery of the speeches. To conclude, I consider twentieth- and twenty-first-century efforts to edit and publish Douglass's Haiti speeches.

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