[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Eve Armentrout-Ma, "Urban Chinese on the Sinitic Fron- tier: Social Organizations in United States Chinatowns, 1849-1898," Modern Asian Studies, XVII (1983), 107-13510.2307/312405
107
2
Li Hua, comp., Ming-Qingyilai Beijinggongshang huiguan beike xuanbian [Selected stone inscriptions of craft and merchant guilds in Beijing since Ming-Qing times] (Beijing, 1980)
Hua
Ming-Qingyilai Beijinggongshang huiguan beike xuanbian
1980
Jiangsu sheng bowuguan, comp., Jiangsu sheng Ming-Qing yilai beike ziliao xuanji [Selected stone inscriptions of Jiangsu province since the Ming-Qing period] (Beijing, 1959)
bowuguan
Jiangsu sheng Ming-Qing yilai beike ziliao xuanji
1959
Shanghai bowuguan tushu ziliaoshi, comp., Shanghai beike ziliao xuanbian [Selected stone inscription materials for Shanghai] (Shanghai, 1980)
ziliaoshi
Shanghai beike ziliao xuanbian
1980
Suzhou lishi bowuguan, Jiangsu shifan xueyuan lishixi, Nanjing daxue Ming-Qing shi yenjiu shi, comps., Ming-Qing Suzhou gongshang ye beike chi [Collection of industrial and commercial stone inscriptions in Suzhou of the Ming-Qing period] (Jiangsu 1981)
bowuguan
Ming-Qing Suzhou gongshang ye beike chi
1981
Niida Noboru, Pekin k-sha- girudo shiryoshu [Source materials on craft and merchant guilds in Beijing] (6 vols., Tokyo, 1975-1983)
Noboru
Pekin k-sha- girudo shiryoshu
1975
3
The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 6th ed., 1976.6
The Concise Oxford Dictionary
1976
4
G. William Skinner, ed., The City in Late Imperial China (Stanford, 1977), especially 23-31
Skinner
23
The City in Late Imperial China
1977
Jacques Gernet, Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongoll Invasion, 1250-1276, H. M. Wright, tr. (New York, 1962)
Gernet
Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongoll Invasion, 1250-1276
1962
Shiba Yoshinobu, Commerce and Society in Sung China, Mark Elvin, tr. (Ann Arbor, 1970)
Yoshinobu
Commerce and Society in Sung China
1970
5
Robert M. Hartwell, "Demographic, Political, and Social Transfor- mation of China, 750-1550," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, XLII (1982), 365-442, esp. 405-42510.2307/2718941
365
6
Skinner, City in Late Imperial China, esp. pp. 17-23
Skinner
17
City in Late Imperial China
7
James T. C. Liu, "The Sung Views on the Control of Government Clerks," Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, X (1967), 317-344
Liu
317
X
Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
1967
Brian E. MacKnight, Village and Bureaucracy in Southern Sung China (Chicago, 1971)
MacKnight
Village and Bureaucracy in Southern Sung China
1971
8
Skinner, City in Late Imperial China, 29-31, 228-229, 682.
Skinner
29
City in Late Imperial China
9
Joseph Needham and Ray Huang (Huang Jen-yii), "The Nature of Chinese Society-A Technical Interpretation," Journal of Oriental Studies, XII (1974), 1-16
Needham
1
XII
Journal of Oriental Studies
1974
10
Fu Zhufu, Zhongguo jingji shi luncong [Studies in Chinese economic history] (2 vols., Beijing, 1980), II, 411-442
Zhufu
411
II
Zhongguo jingji shi
1980
11
ibid., 442-484
12
Needham and Huang, "The Nature of Chinese Society," esp. pp. 1-8
Needham
1
The Nature of Chinese Society
Ray Huang, "The History of the Ming Dynasty and Today's World," Chinese Studies in History, XIX (1986), esp. pp. 3-8
Huang
3
XIX
Chinese Studies in History
1986
13
"Socio-ethics as Orthodoxy," in Kwang-Ching Liu, ed., Orthodoxy in Late Imperial China (forthcoming)
14
Skinner, City in Late Imperial China, 228-229
Skinner
228
City in Late Imperial China
15
Wu Chengming, Zhongguo ziben zhuyi yu guonei shichang [Chinese capitalism and the domestic market] (Beijing, 1985), 196-265
Chengming
196
Zhongguo ziben zhuyi yu guonei shichang
1985
16
Robert M. Hartwell, "Markets, Technology and Structure of Enterprise in the Develop- ment of the Eleventh-Century Chinese Iron and Steel Industry," Journal of Economic History, XXVI (1966), 29-5810.2307/2116001
29
Wen-yuan Qian, The Great Inertia: Scientific Stagnation in Traditional China (London, 1985)
Qian
The Great Inertia: Scientific Stagnation in Traditional China
1985
17
Xu Xinwu, Yapian zhanzheng qian Zhongguo mian fangzhi shougongye di shangpin shengchan yu ziben zhuyi mengya wenti [The problem of commercial production and the sprouting of capitalism in Chinese cotton textile handicraft before the Opium War] (Jiangsu, 1981)
Xinwu
Yapian zhanzheng qian Zhongguo mian fangzhi shougongye di shangpin shengchan yu ziben zhuyi mengya wenti
1981
Xu Dixin and Wu Chengming, Zhongguo zhiben zhuyi mengya [The sprouting of China's capitalism] (Beijing, 1985), 139-159, 269-329, 362-410
Dixin
139
Zhongguo zhiben zhuyi mengya
1985
Albert Feuerwerker, "Proto-industrialization, ca. 1550-1850," in Robert M. Hartwell, Albert Feuerwerker and Robert F. Dernberger, eds., Region, State and Enterprise in Chinese Economic History, 980-1980 (forthcoming)
Feuerwerker
Proto-industrialization, ca. 1550-1850
Region, State and Enterprise in Chinese Economic History, 980-1980
1980
18
Susan Mann, Local Merchants and the Chinese Bureaucracy, 1750-1950 (Stanford, 1987), esp. chapters 3-5
Mann
chapters 3-5
Local Merchants and the Chinese Bureaucracy, 1750-1950
1987
Xu Xinwu, "Yapian zhanzheng qian," 74-81
Xinwu
74
Yapian zhanzheng qian
19
Wu Qiyan, "Qingdai qiangi yahangzhi shisu" [Essay on the bro- kerage system of the early Qing period], Qingshi luncong, VI (1985), 26-52
Qiyan
26
VI
Qingshi luncong
1985
Wei Qingyuan and Wu Qiyan, "Qingdai yahang libi lun" [On the positive and negative sides of the brokerage firms of the Qing dynasty], Qingshi yanjiu tongxun, No. 4 (1985), 13-17
Qingyuan
4
13
Qingshi yanjiu tongxun
1985
Wang Shixin, "Shilun yahang" [The brokerage firms: an essay], Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan jingji yanjiu suo jikan, No. 8 (1986), 198-226
Shixin
8
198
Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan jingji yanjiu suo jikan
1986
20
D. J. MacGowan, "Chinese Guilds or Chambers of Commerce and Trade Unions," Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, XXI (1888-1889), 133-192, esp. 144
MacGowan
133
XXI
Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society
1888
Bingdi (Ping-ti Ho), Zhongguo huiguan shilun [A historical survey of Lands- mannschaften in China] (Taipei, 1966)
Bingdi
Zhongguo huiguan shilun
1966
21
Ibid., 11-21.
22
BJB, pp. 1-14
"Jinshi zhidu yu shangren" [Institutions and merchants in China of recent centuries], in Yu Yingshi, Zhongguo jinshi zhongfiao lunli yu shangren jingshen [Religious ethics and the merchants' spirit in China of recent centuries] (Taipei, 1987), 25-53, esp. pp. 36-49
Jinshi zhidu yu shangren
25
Zhongguo jinshi zhongfiao lunli yu shangren jingshen
1987
23
BJB, pp. 1-2, 4-8
JSB, pp. 340-341
24
BJB, pp. 10-12, 203-204
25
Ibid., pp. 15-16.
26
Ibid., pp. 46-85, esp. 50-51.
27
JSB, pp. 340-377
SZB, pp. 28-29
28
Liu, "Jinshi zhidu," 49-52
Liu
49
Jinshi zhidu
29
Ibid., 44-49.
30
JSB, pp. 340-345
SZB, pp. 355-359
31
Rowe, Hankow: Commerce and Society in a Chinese City, 1749-1889 (Stanford, 1984), esp. chapters 7-10
Rowe
chapters 7-10
Hankow: Commerce and Society in a Chinese City, 1749-1889
1984
SHB, p. 259
Xu Run, Xu Yuzhai zhixu nienpu [Autobiographical chronicle of Xu Run] (n.p., 1927), 16-17
Run
16
Xu Yuzhai zhixu nienpu
1927
32
Xu Xinwu, Yapian zhanzheng qian, 79-80
Xinwu
79
Yapian zhanzheng qian
Tu Li, "Yapian zhanzheng qian Shanghai hanghui xingzhi zhi shanbian" [Changes in the nature of the guilds in Shanghai before the Opium War], in Nanjing daxue lishi xi, Ming- Qing shi yanjiu shi, ed., Zhongguo ziben zhuyi mengya wenti taolun ji [Sympo- sium on the problem of the sprouting of capitalism in China] (Jiangsu, 1983), 153-159
Li
Yapian zhanzheng qian Shanghai hanghui xingzhi zhi shanbian
153
Zhongguo ziben zhuyi mengya wenti taolun ji
1983
33
SHB, pp. 259-260
Susan Mann Jones, "The Ningpo Pang and Financial Power in Shanghai," in Mark Elvin and G. William Skinner, eds., The Chinese City Between Two Worlds (Stanford, 1974), esp. pp. 76-81
Jones
The Ningpo Pang and Financial Power in Shanghai
76
The Chinese City Between Two Worlds
1974
34
Xu Dixin and Wu Chengming, Zhongguo ziben zhuyi, p. 299
Dixin
299
Zhongguo ziben zhuyi
note 35
JSB, pp. 66-73
SZB, pp. 92-95
Peter J. Golas, "Early Ch'ing Guilds," in Skinner, City in Late Imperial China, 555-580, esp. p. 562
Golas
Early Ch'ing Guilds
555
City in Late Imperial China
35
SZB, pp. 122-123, 135-137, 142-148, 163-166, 205-206, 250-252, 259-260, 267-274, 294-296
36
JSB, pp. 107-108
SZB, p. 136
SHB, p. 252
Peng Zeyi, comp., Zhongguo jindai shougongye shi ziliao [Materials for the history of handicraft industry in modern China] (2 vols.; Beijing, 1962; 1984), I, pp. 179-198
Zeyi
179
I
Zhongguo jindai shougongye shi ziliao
1962
II, pp. 28-41
37
note 36
"K," "Chinese Guilds and their Rules," The China Review (July-August 1883), pp. 5-9
July
5
The China Review
1883
MacGowan, "Chinese Guilds"
note 20, above
Report of the Mission to China of the Blackburn Chamber of Commerce 1898-97 (Blackburn, 1898), 307-319
307
Report of the Mission to China of the Blackburn Chamber of Commerce 1898-97
1898
Hosea Ballou Morse, The Gilds of China (London, 1909)
Morse
The Gilds of China
1909
Quan Hansheng, Zhongguo hanghui zhidu shi [A history of the guild institutions of China] (1934; Taipei, 1978)
Hansheng
Zhongguo hanghui zhidu shi
1934
Imahori Seiji, ChUgoku ha-ken shakai no kik-i [Insti- tutions of China's feudal society] (Tokyo, 1955), esp. pp. 701-837
Seiji
701
ChUgoku ha-ken shakai no kik-i
1955
Niida Noboru, Pekin kōshō girudo shiry-oshu
note 2, above
38
BJB, pp. 7, 15-16, 50-51, 132-149
ibid., 133-151
JSB, pp. 18-19, 120-121, 389
SZB, pp. 83-84, 103-105, 124-125, 251-252, 260-261, 278
SHB, pp. 311-312, 405-406, 409-411
Niida Noburu, Pekin k-osh- girudo, III, 543-547
Noburu
543
III
Pekin k-osh- girudo
39
BJB, pp. 50-51
SZB, pp. 231, 236-237, 251-252, 303-304
Quan Hansheng, Zhongguo hanghui, 169-172
Hansheng
169
Zhongguo hanghui
pp. 173, 178, 180, 182, 185
40
SHB, pp. 308-315.
41
Xu Dixin and Wu Chengming, Zhongguo ziben, 139-159, 298, 362-382
Dixin
139
Zhongguo ziben
Lilian M. Li, China's Silk Trade: Traditional Industry in the Modern World, 1842-1937 (Cambridge, Mass., 1981), esp. pp. 30-61
Li
30
China's Silk Trade: Traditional Industry in the Modern World, 1842-1937
1981
42
SZB, pp. 80-88
Xu Xinwu, Yapian zhanzheng qian, 78-102
Xinwu
78
Yapian zhanzheng qian
Xu Dixin and Wu Chengming, Zhongguo ziben, 382-410
Dixin
382
Zhongguo ziben
43
SZB, pp. 13-17, 24-25, 36-37, 53-71, 74-82
Xu Dixin and Wu Chengming, Zhongguo ziben, 306-309
Dixin
306
Zhongguo ziben
44
SZB, pp. 80, 234-236.
45
ibid., 234-236
MacGowan, "Chinese Guilds," 168
MacGowan
168
Chinese Guilds
46
Golas, Ho (He Bindi), Rowe, and Quan cited above
Well Ington K. K. Chan, "Merchant Organizations in Late Imperial China: Patterns of Change and Development," Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, XIV (1975), 28-42
Chan
28
XIV
Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society
1975
Gary G. Hamilton, "Regional Associations in the Chinese City: A Comparative Perspective," Comparative Studies in Society and History, XXI (1979), 346-36110.2307/178532
346
above, note 37
Kato Shigeshi, Shina keizaishi k-hsho [Research on Chinese economic history] (2 vols., Tokyo, 1952-1953)
Shigeshi
Shina keizaishi k-hsho
1952
Negishi Tadashi, Shanghai no girudo [The guilds of Shanghai] (Tokyo, 1951)
Tadashi
Shanghai no girudo
1951
Ch-goku no girudo [The guilds of China] (Tokyo, 1953)
Niida Noboru, Chiugoku no shakai to girudo [Guilds and Chinese society] (Tokyo, 1951)
Noboru
Chiugoku no shakai to girudo
1951
"The Industrial and Commercial Guilds of Peking and Religion and Fellowcountrymanship as Elements of Their Coherence," M. Elder, trans., Folklore Studies, IX (1950), 179-20610.2307/1177403
179
above, notes 15 and 17
48
above, note 15
49
SHB, pp. 68-73
SZB, pp. 42-43, 108-109, 233-234, 240-241, 315-318, 320-321, 388-389
50
Dou Jiliang, Tongxiang zuzhi zhi yanjiu [Research on Landsmann organizations] (1943; Shanghai, 1946), 77-78, 84
Jiliang
77
Tongxiang zuzhi zhi yanjiu
1943
Peng Zeyi, "Shijiu shiji houqi Zhongguo chengshi shougongye shangye hanghui di chongjian he zuoyung" [The reconstruction and the role of handicraft and commercial guilds in Chinese cities in the late nineteenth century], Lishiyanjiu, I (1965), 71-102, esp. pp. 91-94
Zeyi
71
I
Lishiyanjiu
1965
Quan Hansheng, Zhongguo hanghui, 165-166, 174
Hansheng
165
Zhongguo hanghui
51
SHB, pp. 427-432
Jones, "The Ningpo Pang and Financial Power in Shanghai," 73-96, esp. pp. 86-88
Jones
73
The Ningpo Pang and Financial Power in Shanghai
52
SHB, pp. 261-275, 403-408, 418-432.
53
Jiliang, Tongxiang zuzhi, 17-18
Jiliang
17
Tongxiang zuzhi
Well Ington K. K. Chan, Merchants, Mandarins, and Modern Enterprise in Late Ch'ing China (Cambridge, Mass., 1977), esp. pp. 214-216, 241-243
Chan
214
Merchants, Mandarins, and Modern Enterprise in Late Ch'ing China
1977
54
Rowe, Hankow, 344-346
Rowe
344
Hankow
Marie-Claire Bergeire, L'age d'or de la bourgeoisie chinoise, 1911-1937 (Paris, 1986)
Bergeire
L'age d'or de la bourgeoisie chinoise, 1911-1937
1986
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