[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Michael Oakeshott, "The Activity of Being an Historian," Historical Studies, I (London, 1958), T. Desmond Williams, ed., 2, 18-19.
Oakeshott
2
The Activity of Being an Historian
18
I
Historical Studies
1958
R. G. Collingwood, The Idea of History (Oxford, Eng., 1946, reprinted 1956), 7-10
Collingwood
7
The Idea of History
1956
Carl L. Becker, The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers (New Haven, Conn., 1932), 18-19
Becker
18
The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers
1932
Becker, Everyman His Own Historian: Essays on History and Polities (New York, 1935), 233- 236, 248
Becker
233
Everyman His Own Historian: Essays on History and Polities
1935
Benedetto Croce, History as the Story of Liberty, trans- lated from the Italian by Sylvia Sprigge (London, 1941), 17-18
Croce
17
History as the Story of Liberty
1941
James Harvey Robin- son, The New History: Essays Illustrating the Modern Historical Outlook (New York, 1912, reprinted 1958), 1- 3, 24- 25
Robinson
1
The New History: Essays Illustrating the Modern Historical Outlook
1958
Leopold von Ranke, The Theory and Practice of History, edited by Georg C. Iggers and Konrad von Moltke (Indianapolis, 1973), 33- 46
von Ranke
33
The Theory and Practice of History
1973
Edward H. Carr, What Is History (New York, 1964), 3-35
Carr
3
What Is History
1964
The Varieties of History: From Voltaire to the Present Fritz Stern, ed. (Cleveland, 1956), and especially the introduction, 12-13
Stern
12
The Varieties of History: From Voltaire to the Present
1956
2
John Barth, The Sot-Weed Factor (New York, 1964), 793
Barth
793
The Sot-Weed Factor
1964
3
Kurt Riezler, "The Historian and Truth," Journal of Philosophy, XLV (July 1, 1948), 378- 38910.2307/2018940
378
Samuel Eliot Morison, "Faith of a Historian," American Historical Review, LVI (1951), 262- 26310.2307/1840442
262
Geoffrey R. Elton, The Practice of History (London, 1967), 51-58
Elton
51
The Practice of History
1967
Robert W. Fogel and Geoffrey R. Elton, Which Road to the Past? Two Views of History (New Haven, 1983), 104, 121
Fogel
104
Which Road to the Past? Two Views of History
1983
C.V. Wedgwood, The Sense of the Past: Thirteen Studies in the Theory and Practice of History (New York, 1960), 175- 176
Wedgwood
175
The Sense of the Past: Thirteen Studies in the Theory and Practice of History
1960
Collingwood, Idea of History, 19, 55
Collingwood
19
Idea of History
Croce, History as Liberty, 19- 22
Croce
19
History as Liberty
Ranke, Theory and Practice of History, 39
Ranke
39
Theory and Practice of History
Colin Campbell, "History and Ethics: A Dispute," New York Times, Dec. 23, 1984, pp. 1, 19
Campbell
Dec. 23
1
New York Times
1984
4
H. Morse Stephens, "Nationality and History," American Historical Review, XXI (1916), 22610.2307/1835047
226
John H. Randall, Jr. and George Haines, IV, "Controlling Assump- tions in the Practice of American Historians" in Theory and Practice in Historical Study, edited by Merle Curti (New York, 1946), 22- 36
Randall
Controlling Assumptions in the Practice of American Historians
22
Theory and Practice in Historical Study, edited by Merle Curti
1946
Oakeshott, "Being an Historian," 2- 3
Oakeshott
2
Being an Historian
Elton, Practice of History, 54, 63, 84
Elton
54
Practice of History
C. Wright Mills, The Sociological Imagination (New York, 1959), 144
Mills
144
The Sociological Imagination
1959
Ranke, Theory and Practice of History, 41- 43
Ranke
41
Theory and Practice of History
5
Harry Elmer Barnes, A History of Historical Writing (2nd ed., New York, 1963)
Barnes
2
A History of Historical Writing
1963
especially, 266, 271-273
Becker, Heavenly City, 44
Becker
44
Heavenly City
Page Smith, The Historian and History (New York, 1964), 154-156, 228
Smith
154
The Historian and History
1964
Michael Zuckerman, "Myth and Method: The Current Crisis in American Historical Writing," History Teacher, XVII (1984), 21910.2307/492769
219
Burleigh T. Wilkins, Carl Becker: A Biographical Study in American Intellectual History (Cambridge, Mass., 1961), 126
Wilkins
126
Carl Becker: A Biographical Study in American Intellectual History
1961
Detachment and the Writing of History: Essays and Letters of Carl L. Becker, Phil L. Snyder, ed. (Ithaca, N.Y., 1958), 3- 28
Snyder
3
Detachment and the Writing of History: Essays and Letters of Carl L. Becker
1958
Marc Bloch, The Historian's Craft, translated from the French by Peter Putnam (New York, 1953), 138-142
Bloch
138
The Historian's Craft
1953
6
Collingwood, Idea of History, 68
Collingwood
68
Idea of History
Pieter Geyl, Arnold J. Toynbee, and Pitrim A. Sorokin, The Pattern of the Past: Can We Determine It? (Boston, 1949), 66- 70
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66
The Pattern of the Past: Can We Determine It?
1949
Julien Benda, La Trahison des clercs (Paris, 1927), 26- 30, 63, 69, 88- 91, 157-159, 180- 182, 196-197
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26
La Trahison des clercs
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K.R. Howe, "The Fate of the 'Savage' in Pacific Historiography," New Zealand Journal of History, XI (1977), 153-154
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153
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Arab Historians of the Crusades, Francesco Gabrielli, ed. and trans. (Berkeley, 1969), 4
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4
Arab Historians of the Crusades
1969
David Bid- ney, "Cultural Relativism" in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, David L. Sills, ed. (17 vols., New York, 1968), III, 546
Bidney
Cultural Relativism
546
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1968
Anthony D. Smith, "Ethnocentrism, Nationalism and Social Change," International Journal of Comparative Sociology, XIII (1972), 1, 5, 8-10, 20
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1
XIII
International Journal of Comparative Sociology
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7
Wedgwood, Sense of the Past, 35, 52
Wedgwood
35
Sense of the Past
A.J. P. Taylor, Englishmen and Others (London, 1956), 15-17
Taylor
15
Englishmen and Others
1956
Barnes, Historical Writing, 192, 210
Barnes
192
Historical Writing
John Higham, Leonard Krieger, and Felix Gilbert, History (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965), 321- 323, 333
Higham
321
History
1965
Jacob Burckhardt, Force and Free- dom: An Interpretation of History, James H. Nichols, ed. (New York, 1955), 105
Burckhardt
105
Force and Freedom: An Interpretation of History
1955
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Hurstfield
Queen and State: the Emergence of an Elizabethan Myth
58
Britain and the Netherlands: Some Political Mythologies
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8
Elton, Practice of History, 14
Elton
14
Practice of History
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81
Political History: Principles and Practices
1970
Oscar Handlin, Truth in History (Cambridge, Mass., 1979), 60
Handlin
60
Truth in History
1979
Carol S. Gruber, Mars and Minerva: World War I and the Uses of Higher Learning in America (Baton Rouge, La., 1975), 160
Gruber
160
Mars and Minerva: World War I and the Uses of Higher Learning in America
1975
9
Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of History (Lon- don, 1981), 202
Butterfield
202
The Origins of History
1981
Robert Bigelow, The Dawn Warriors: Man's Evolution Toward Peace (Boston, 1969), 62
Bigelow
62
The Dawn Warriors: Man's Evolution Toward Peace
1969
Ashley Montagu, The Nature of Human Aggression (New York, 1976), 6
Montagu
6
The Nature of Human Aggression
1976
Charles W. Fornara, The Nature of History in Ancient Greece and Rome (Berkeley, 1983), 33, 93
Fornara
33
The Nature of History in Ancient Greece and Rome
1983
Barbara W. Tuchman, The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam (New York, 1984)
Tuchman
The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam
1984
10
Herodotus, The Histories, Aubrey de Selincourt, trans. (Harmondsworth, Eng., 1954), 10
Herodotus
10
The Histories
1954
Donald R. Kelley, Foundations of Modern Scholarship: Language, Law, and History in the French Renaissance (New York, 1970), 305
Kelley
305
Foundations of Modern Scholarship: Language, Law, and History in the French Renaissance
1970
Hunter R. Rawlings III, The Structure of Thucydides' History (Princeton, 1981), 266
Rawlings
266
The Structure of Thucydides' History
1981
Ernst Breisach, Historiography: Ancient, Medieval and Modern (Chicago, 1983), 6-12
Breisach
6
Historiography: Ancient, Medieval and Modern
1983
11
Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, the Thomas Hobbes trans., David Grene, ed. (2 vols., Ann Arbor, Mich., 1959), I, 84, 108-115
Thucydides
84
I
The Peloponnesian War
1959
John H. Finley, Jr., Three Essays on Thucydides (Cambridge, Mass., 1967), pp. 143- 144
Finley
143
Three Essays on Thucydides
1967
12
Richard Reitzenstein, Hellenistiche Wundererziihlungen (Stuttgart, 1963), 83
Reitzenstein
83
Hellenistiche Wundererziihlungen
1963
Shaye J. D. Cohen, "Masada: Literary Tradition, Archaeological Remains, and the Credibility of Josephus," Journal of Jewish Studies, XXXIII (1982), 390- 392
Cohen
390
XXXIII
Journal of Jewish Studies
1982
Fornara, History in Ancient Greece and Rome, 64- 65, 105, 120
Fornara
64
History in Ancient Greece and Rome
Gaston Bouthoul, Traiti de polemologie: Sociologie des guerres (2nd. ed., Paris, 1970), 57-58
Bouthoul
2
57
Traiti de polemologie: Sociologie des guerres
1970
Brian Croke and Alanna M. Emmett, "Historiography in Late Antiquity" in History and Historians in Late Antiquity, Croke and Emmett, eds. (Sydney, 1983), 1
Croke
1
Historiography in Late Antiquity" in History and Historians in Late Antiquity
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13
Arthur O. Lovejoy and George Boas, Primitivism and Related Ideas in Antiquity (Baltimore, 1935, reprinted 1965), 185
Lovejoy
185
Primitivism and Related Ideas in Antiquity
1965
Thucydides, Peloponnesian War, I, v
Thucydides
I
Peloponnesian War
14
Polybius, The General History of Polybius, trans. from the Greek by Mr. Hampton (3 vols., 4th ed., London, 1809), Book I, Chap. I, 20
Polybius
4
Chap. I
20
The General History of Polybius
1809
Barnes, Historical Writing, 33
Barnes
33
Historical Writing
Fornara, History in Ancient Greece and Rome, 114
Fornara
114
History in Ancient Greece and Rome
15
Herbert Butterfield, "Historiography" in Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Philip P. Wiener, ed. (4 vols., New York, 1973), II, 470
Butterfield
Historiography
470
II
Dictionary of the History of Ideas
1973
Fornara, History in Ancient Greece and Rome, 50, 56
Fornara
50
History in Ancient Greece and Rome
Publius Vergilius Maro, The Aeneid: An Epic Poem of Rome, L. R. Lind, trans. (Bloomington, Ind. 1963), xi- xii
Maro
xi
The Aeneid: An Epic Poem of Rome
1963
B. G. Gokhale, Indian Thought Through the Ages: A Study of Some of the Dominant Concepts (New York, 1961), 179
Gokhale
179
Indian Thought Through the Ages: A Study of Some of the Dominant Concepts
1961
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O'Hanon
1
XVII
Modern Asian Studies
1983
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Aston
Nihongi: Chronicles of Japanfrom the Earliest Times to A.D. 697
1956
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Kierman
Chinese Ways in Warfare
1974
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Bram
45
An Analysis of Inca Militarism
1941
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Mason
189
The Ancient Civilizations of Peru
1967
16
Barnes, Historical Writing, 57
Barnes
57
Historical Writing
Esme Wingfield-Stratford, The History of English Patriotism (2 vols., London, 1913), I, 44
Wingfield-Stratford
44
I
The History of English Patriotism
1913
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Tuchman
556
16
A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century
1978
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Larner
4
Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch, 1216-1380
1980
17
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Cochrane, Historians and Historiography in the Italian Ren- aissance (Chicago, 1981), 492
Cochrane
492
Historians and Historiography in the Italian Renaissance
1981
Peter Burke, The Renaissance Sense of the Past (New York, 1969), 39, 47, 77, 89
Burke
39
The Renaissance Sense of the Past
1969
Janusz Tazbir, "Polish National Consciousness in the 16th- 18th Centuries," Acta Poloniae Historica, XLVI (1982), 66
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66
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Acta Poloniae Historica
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18
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McKitterick
563
VIII
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1980
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Spitz
93
Conrad Celtis: The German Arch-Humanist
1957
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Maskell
36
The Historical Epic in France 1500-1700
1973
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Ranum
22
Artisans of Glory: Writers and Historical Thought in Seventeenth Century France
1980
19
Breisach, Historiography, 235- 242
Breisach
235
Historiography
Butterfield, "Historiography," 178- 179
Butterfield
178
Historiography
Barnes, Historical Writing, 178-179
Barnes
178
Historical Writing
Higham, History, 333
Higham
333
History
Georges Lefebvre, La naissance de l'historiographie moderne (Paris, 1971), 188- 204
Lefebvre
188
La naissance de l'historiographie moderne
1971
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Mellon
37
The Political Uses of History: A Study of Historians in the French Restoration
1958
20
Burckhardt, Force and Freedom, 231- 232
Burckhardt
231
Force and Freedom
Friedrich Meinecke, Cosmopoli- tanism and the National State, translated from the German by Robert B. Kimber (Prince- ton, 1970, originally published 1908), ix
Meinecke
ix
Cosmopolitanism and the National State
1908
Keith L. Nelson and Spencer C. Olin, Jr., Why War? Ideology, Theory and History (Berkeley, 1979), 26-27
Nelson
26
Why War? Ideology, Theory and History
1979
Robinson, New History, 40- 43
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40
New History
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Hegel's Account of War
179
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21
Stern, ed., Varieties of History, 170-179.
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22
Alexander DeConde, "Historians, the War of American Independence, and the Persistence of the Exceptionalist Ideal," Interna- tional History Review, V (1983), 399- 430
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399
V
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29
Controlling Assumptions
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25
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23
Dorothy Ross, "Historical Consciousness in Nineteenth Century Amer- ica," American Historical Review, LXXXIX (1984), 92810.2307/1866398
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David D. Van Tassel, "From Learned Society to Professional Organization: The American Historical Association, 1884-1900," ibid., 929, 938-93910.2307/1866399
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Barnes, Historical Writing, 231
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231
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Holzle
Die Idee einer altergermanischen Freiheit vor Montesquieu
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26
Samuel Eliot Morison, "Faith of a Historian," 267
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29
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1975
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30
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Yang Lien-sheng, "Historical Notes on the Chinese World Order" and Wang Gungwu, "Early Ming Relations with Southeast Asia: A Background Essay" in The Chinese World Order: Traditional China's Foreign Relations, John K. Fairbank, ed. (Cam- bridge, Mass., 1968), 24, 38- 47
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1937
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35
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36
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History as Liberty
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Pitfalls of Public History
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Are American Teachers Free? An Analysis of Restraints Upon the Freedom of Teaching in American Schools
1936
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Beale
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Nature of Historical Explanation
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Historian and Truth
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History as a Problem
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Which Road to the Past
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Foundations of Modern Historical Scholarship
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Historical Consciousness in America
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Beale
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Are American Teachers Free?
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Nationality and History
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Akzin
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State and Nation
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Historical Inevitability
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Commager
300
The Search for a Usable Past
1967
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Mills
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Sociological Imagination
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Carr
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What Is History
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New York Times, May 21, 1982
May 21
New York Times
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Jan. 8
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Bennett
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Essays on Nationalism
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55
Kelley, Foundations of Modern Historical Scholarship, 27
Kelley
27
Foundations of Modern Historical Scholarship
Becker, Heavenly City, 88
Becker
88
Heavenly City
56
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Sagan
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LXII
Foreign Affairs
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Addington
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War and Society
1983
Montagu, Nature of Human Aggression, 9, 57
Montagu
9
Nature of Human Aggression
Robert L. Heilbroner, The Future as History (New York, 1961), 61- 65
Heilbroner
61
The Future as History
1961
57
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Heyn
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War and Society
1984
58
William J. Broad in the New York Times, Dec. 12, 1984, 10
Broad
Dec. 12
10
New York Times
1984
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Nuclear War and Catastrophe
National Re- search Council, Committee on the Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Explosions, The Major Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange (Washington, D.C., 1985)
National Research Council
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1985
Quincy Wright, "The Study of War," Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, XVI, 466-467
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Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
William R. Van Cleave, "The Arms Control Record: Successes and Failures" in Arms Control: Myth Versus Reality, Richard F. Staar, ed. (Stanford, 1984), 1-23
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