[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Edward Eggleston, "The New History," in Annual Report of the American Historical Asso- ciation for 1900 (2 vols., Washington, D.C., 1901), I, 37 -47.
Eggleston
The New History
37
I
Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1900
1901
2
Karl Lamprecht's Deutsche Geschichte in 1898
Earle Wilbur Dow used the phrase "the new history," declaring that it took into account "all the activities of man as a social being" and entailed describing the human past "from the point of view of rational evolution." American Histdrical Review, III (1897-1898), 448
Wilbur
448
III
American Histdrical Review
1897
Buckle's call for a "science of history" is in the first chapter of his History of Civilization in England published in 1857
Buckle
History of Civilization in England
1857
Spencer's prescription for useable history is in his essay, "What Knowledge Is of Most Worth?" which first appeared in the Westminster Review, July, 1859
Spencer
July
Westminster Review
1859
Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical
Essai sur les Moeurs et l'esprit des Nations
Encyclopidie
3
James Harvey Robinson, The New History: Essays Illustrating the Modern Historical Outlook (New York, 1912)
Robinson
The New History: Essays Illustrating the Modern Historical Outlook
1912
Robinson, "The Conception and Methods of History," in Howard J. Rogers, ed., Congress of Arts and Science Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904 (Boston, 1906), II, 40-51, esp. 51
Robinson
The Conception and Methods of History
40
II
Congress of Arts and Science Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904
1906
Robinson, "The New History," in American Philosophical Society Proceed- ings, L (1911), 179-190, esp. 187
Robinson
179
L
American Philosophical Society Proceedings
1911
4
Harry Elmer Barnes, The New History and the Social Studies (New York, 1925), 3-39
Barnes
3
The New History and the Social Studies
1925
Barnes, The History of Western Civilization (2 vols., New York, 1935), I, v-ix
Barnes
v
I
The History of Western Civilization
1935
5
Richard Jensen, "History and the Political Scientist," in Seymour Martin Lipset, ed., Politics and the Social Sciences (New York, 1969), 1-28
Jensen
History and the Political Scientist
1
Politics and the Social Sciences
1969
6
Richard Hofstadter, "History and the Social Sciences," in Fritz Stern, ed., The Varieties of History (Cleveland, 1956), 360
Hofstadter
History and the Social Sciences
360
The Varieties of History
1956
7
Theory and Practice in Historical Study: A Report of the Committee on Historiography (New York, 1946), 138.
138
Theory and Practice in Historical Study: A Report of the Committee on Historiography
1946
8
Ibid., 55-102
134-135, 139-140
9
Thomas C. Cochran, "'The Presidential Synthesis,' in American History," American Historical Review, LIII (1948), 748.10.2307/1843835
748
10
The Social Sciences in Historical Study: A Report of the Committee on Historiography (New York, 1954), 13.
13
The Social Sciences in Historical Study: A Report of the Committee on Historiography
1954
11
Richard D. Challener and Maurice Lee, Jr., "History and the Social Sciences: The Problem of Communications," American Historical Review, LXI (1956), 334.10.2307/1844174
334
12
Hofstadter, "History and the Social Sciences," 364.
Hofstadter
364
History and the Social Sciences
13
Social Sciences in Historical Study, 150 -151.
14
Edward N. Saveth, "Scientific History," in Donald Sheehan and Harold C. Syrett, eds., Essays in American Historiography: Papers Presented in Honor of Allan Nevins (New York, 1960), 16.
Saveth
Scientific History
16
Essays in American Historiography: Papers Presented in Honor of Allan Nevins
1960
15
V. O. Key, Jr., "A Theory of Critical Elections," Journal of Politics, XVII (1955), 3 -1810.2307/2126401
3
Alfred H. Conrad and John R. Meyer, "The Economics of Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South,"Journal of Political Economy, LXVI (1958), 95-13010.2307/1827270
95
Merle Curti, et al., The Making of An American Community: A Case Study of Democracy in a Frontier Community (Stanford, Calif., 1959)
Curti
The Making of An American Community: A Case Study of Democracy in a Frontier Community
1959
Lee Benson, "Research Problems in American Political Historiography," in Mirra Komarovsky, ed., Common Frontiers of the Social Sciences (Glencoe, Ill., 1957), 113 -183, 418- 421
Benson
Research Problems in American Political Historiography
113
Common Frontiers of the Social Sciences
1957
Benson, The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York as a Test Case (Princeton, N.J., 1961)
Benson
The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York as a Test Case
1961
Robert William Fogel, The Union Pacific Railroad: A Case in Premature Enterprise (Bal- timore, 1960)
Fogel
The Union Pacific Railroad: A Case in Premature Enterprise
1960
16
Carl Bridenbaugh, "The Great Mutation," American Historical Review, LXVIII (1963), 32610.2307/1904534
326
Robert William Fogel, "Scientific History and Traditional History," in L. Jonathan Cohen, et al., eds., Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, VI: Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Hannover, 1979 (Amster- dam, 1982), 49
Fogel
Scientific History and Traditional History
49
Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, VI: Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Hannover, 1979
1982
G.R. Elton, in Which Road to the Past?: Two Views of History (New Haven, Conn., 1983)
Elton
Which Road to the Past?: Two Views of History
1983
17
"Quantification, Scientific History, and Scholarly Innovation," in Benson, To- ward the Scientific Study of History: Selected Essays (Philadelphia, 1972), 99.
Quantification, Scientific History, and Scholarly Innovation
99
Toward the Scientific Study of History: Selected Essays
1972
Robert William Fogel, "The Limits of Quantitative Methods in History," American Historical Review, LXXX (1975), 329-35010.2307/1850498
329
Samuel P. Hays, American Political History as Social Analysis (Knox- ville, Tenn., 1980)
Hays
American Political History as Social Analysis
1980
Allan G. Bogue, "Quantification in the 1980s," in Theodore K. Rabb and Robert I. Rotberg, eds., The New History: The 1980s and Beyond (Princeton, N.J., 1982), 137- 175
Bogue
Quantification in the 1980s
137
The New History: The 1980s and Beyond
1982
J. Morgan Kousser, "Quantitative Social-Scientific History," in Michael Kammen, ed., The Past Before Us: Contemporary Historical Writing in the United States (Ithaca, N.Y., 1980), 433 - 456
Kousser
Quantitative Social-Scientific History
433
The Past Before Us: Contemporary Historical Writing in the United States
1980
Kousser, "History QUASHED: Quantitative Social Scientific History in Perspective," American Behavioral Scientist, XXIII (1980), 885 -904
Kousser
885
XXIII
American Behavioral Scientist
1980
18
Allan G. Bogue, "The New Political History in the 1970s," in Kammen, ed., The Past Before Us (Ithaca, N.Y., 1980), 232.
Bogue
The New Political History in the 1970s
232
The Past Before Us
1980
19
Ronald P. Formisano, Mass Political Parties: Michigan, 1827-1861 (Princeton, N.J., 1971), 102-103, 110, 138, 160-164
Formisano
102
Mass Political Parties: Michigan, 1827-1861
1971
Paul Kleppner, The Cross of Culture: A Social Analysis of Midwestern Politics, 1850-1900 (New York, 1970), 69-91
Kleppner
69
The Cross of Culture: A Social Analysis of Midwestern Politics, 1850-1900
1970
Kleppner, The Third Electoral Sys- tem, 1853 -1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1979), 143 -197
Kleppner
143
The Third Electoral System, 1853 -1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures
1979
Kleppner, "Partisanship and Ethnoreligious Conflict: The Third Electoral System, 1853 - 1892," in Kleppner, et al., The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (Westport, Conn., 1981), 134-136
Kleppner
Partisanship and Ethnoreligious Conflict: The Third Electoral System, 1853 1892
134
The Evolution of American Electoral Systems
1981
note 40 below
20
J. Morgan Kousser, "The 'New Political History': A Methodological Critique," Reviews in American History, IV (1975), 1-1410.2307/2701238
1
Richard B. Latner and Peter Levine, "Perspectives on Antebellum Pietistic Politics," ibid., 15 -2410.2307/2701239
15
21
Hays, American Political History, 115-116, 293.
Hays
115
American Political History
22
Frederick Jackson Turner, "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," in Annual Report of the American Historical Associationfor 1893 (Washington, D.C., 1894), 217.
Turner
The Significance of the Frontier in American History
217
Annual Report of the American Historical Associationfor 1893
1894
23
Charles A. and Mary Beard, The Rise of American Civilization (2 vols., New York, 1927), II, 36-40, 53-54.
Charles
36
II
The Rise of American Civilization
1927
24
Benson, Scientific Study of History, 191.
Benson
191
Scientific Study of History
25
Cochran, "Presidential Synthesis," 759.
Cochran
759
Presidential Synthesis
26
Joel H. Silbey, "The Civil War Synthesis in American Political History," Civil War His- tory, X (1964), 130-140.
Silbey
130
X
Civil War History
1964
27
Joel H. Silbey, "The Surge of Republican Power: Partisan Antipathy, American Social Conflict, and the Coming of the Civil War," in Stephen E. Maizlish and John J. Kushma, eds., Essays on American Antebellum Politics, 1840-1860 (College Station, Texas, 1982), 201
Silbey
The Surge of Republican Power: Partisan Antipathy, American Social Conflict, and the Coming of the Civil War
201
Essays on American Antebellum Politics, 1840-1860
1982
28
Ibid., 203 -206.
29
Benson, Scientific Study of History
Charles M. Wiltse, in John C. Calhoun: Nullifier, 1829-1839 (Indianapolis, 1949), 172
Wiltse
172
John C. Calhoun: Nullifier, 1829-1839
1949
If any single date can be fixed as that on which a given event was predetermined, the Civil War became inevitable on December 10, 1832
30
Thus Alexander's line of reasoning could lead to the conclusion that Washing- ton, just by existing in 1787
31
Journal of Southern History, XLVII (1981), 3-3210.2307/2207054
3
32
Joel L. Silbey, Shrine of Party: Congressional Voting Behavior, 1841-1852 (Pittsburgh, 1967)
Silbey
Shrine of Party: Congressional Voting Behavior, 1841-1852
1967
Thomas B. Alexander, Sectional Stress and Party Strength: A Study of Roll-Call Voting Patterns in the United States House of Representatives, 1836-1860 (Nashville, 1967)
Alexander
Sectional Stress and Party Strength: A Study of Roll-Call Voting Patterns in the United States House of Representatives, 1836-1860
1967
David Donald in Political Science Quarterly, LXXXIII (1968), 455 -45610.2307/2147521
455
Frank Otto Gatell in Journal of American History, LIV (1967 -1968), 402 - 40310.2307/1894835
402
Charles B. Dew in Wisconsin Magazine of History, LII (1968-1969), 182 -184
Dew
182
LII
Wisconsin Magazine of History
1968
Richard P. McCormick in Journal of Southern History, XXX- III (1967), 568-56910.2307/2204494
568
Journal of American History, LIV (1967 -1968), 893-89410.2307/1918103
893
33
Silbey, Shrine of Party, 145.
Silbey
145
Shrine of Party
Gerald W. Wolff, "Party and Section: The Senate and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill," Civil War History, XVIII (1972), 293-311
Wolff
293
XVIII
Civil War History
1972
p. 307
34
Silbey, Shrmne of Party, 109-114, 189 -200.
Silbey
109
Shrmne of Party
Congressional Voting Behavior and the Southern-Western Alliance, 1841-1852" (University of Iowa, 1963), 520 -521
35
On July 31, 1850
Cong. Globe, 31 Cong., 1 sess., Appendix, 1479-1483
36
David M. Potter, The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861 (New York, 1976), 90
Potter
90
The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861
1976
Don E. Fehren- bacher, The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics (New York, 1978), 162-163
Fehrenbacher
162
The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics
1978
37
Silbey, "Congressional Voting Behavior," 521, 527-528.
Silbey
521
Congressional Voting Behavior
38
Walter Dean Burnham, "Theory and Voting Research," in his The Current Crisis in American Politics (New York, 1982), 80, 84-86
Burnham
Theory and Voting Research
80
The Current Crisis in American Politics
1982
American Political Science Review, LXVIII [1974], 1002-102310.2307/1959143
1002
"Party Systems and the Political Process," in William Nisbet Chambers and Walter Dean Burnham, eds., The American Party Systems: Stages of Political Development (New York, 1967), 288, 294-295
Nisbet
Party Systems and the Political Process
288
The American Party Systems: Stages of Political Development
1967
39
Michael Fitzgibbon Holt, Forging a Majority: The Formation of the Republican Party in Pittsburgh, 1848-1860 (New Haven, Conn., 1969), 145-146, 307 -308
Holt
145
Forging a Majority: The Formation of the Republican Party in Pittsburgh, 1848-1860
1969
Ronald P. Formisano, The Birth of Mass Political Parties: Michigan, 1827-1861 (Princeton N.J., 1971), 217-218, 235, 252-253
Formisano
217
The Birth of Mass Political Parties: Michigan, 1827-1861
1971
40
Richard J. Jensen, Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854-1983 (Westport, Conn., 1983), 5, 7
Jensen
5
Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854-1983
1983
Jensen, The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896 (Chicago, 1971), 62-69
Jensen
62
The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896
1971
41
Burnham, "Theory and Voting Research," 80.
Burnham
80
Theory and Voting Research
42
James E. Wright, "The Ethnocultural Model of Voting: A Behavioral and Historical Critique," American Behavioral Scientist, XVI (1972-1973), 653-674
Wright
653
XVI
American Behavioral Scientist
1972
Richard L. McCormick, "Ethno-Cultural Interpretations of Nineteenth-Century American Voting Behavior," Political Science Quarterly, LXXXIX (1974), 351-37710.2307/2149264
351
Eric Foner, Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War (New York, 1980), 16-19
Foner
16
Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War
1980
43
Michael F. Holt, The Political Crisis of the 1850s (New York, 1978).
Holt
The Political Crisis of the 1850s
1978
44
George H. Daniels, Robert P. Swierenga, Paul J. Kleppner, and James M. Berquist in Frederick C. Luebke, ed., Ethnic Voters and the Election of Lincoln (Lincoln, Neb., 1971).
Daniels
Ethnic Voters and the Election of Lincoln
1971
45
Dale Baum, The Civil War Party System: The Case of Massachusetts, 1848-1876 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1984), 24-54
Baum
24
The Civil War Party System: The Case of Massachusetts, 1848-1876
1984
46
Seymour Martin Lipset, Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics (2nd ed., Baltimore, 1981), 372-384.
Lipset
2
372
Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics
1981
47
Peyton McCrary, Clark Miller, and Dale Baum, "Class and Party in the Secession Cri- sis: Voting Behavior in the Deep South, 1856-1861," Journal of Interdisciplinary History, VIII (1978), 429-457.10.2307/202915
429
Michael P. Johnson, Toward a Patriarchal Republic: The Secession of Georgia (Baton Rouge, La., 1977), 63-78, 206-210
Johnson
63
Toward a Patriarchal Republic: The Secession of Georgia
1977
48
Silbey, "Surge of Republican Power," quotations from pp. 227, 229.
Silbey
227
Surge of Republican Power
49
Ibid., 213n.
50
McCrary, Miller, and Baum, "Class and Party in the Secession Crisis," 444 -445.
McCrary
444
Class and Party in the Secession Crisis
51
Richmond Enquirer
Avery Craven, The Coming of the Civil War (New York 1942), 300
Craven
300
The Coming of the Civil War
1942
Gerald Gunderson, "The Origin of the American Civil War," Journal of Economic His- tory, XXXIV (1974), 915 -94510.2307/2116615
915
quotation from p. 944
52
Silbey, "Surge of Republican Power," 204
Silbey
204
Surge of Republican Power
The South and Three Sec- tional Crises (Baton Rouge, La., 1980), 3
3
The South and Three Sectional Crises
1980
Ronald P. Formisano, in his essay, "Toward a Reorientation of Jacksonian Politics,"Journal of American History, LXIII (1976), 64-6510.2307/1908989
64
53
J. Morgan Kousser, "The Revivalism of Narra- tive: A Response to Recent Criticisms of Quantitative History," Social Science History, VIII (1984), 133-14910.2307/1170990
133
54
Kleppner, Third Electoral System, xx.
Kleppner
xx
Third Electoral System
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