[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
John D. Unruh, Jr., The Plains Across: The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mis- sissippi West, 1840-60 (Urbana, 1979)
Unruh
The Plains Across: The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840-60
1979
John Mack Faragher, Women and Men on the Over- land Trail (New Haven, 1979)
Faragher
Women and Men on the Overland Trail
1979
Sandra L. Myres, Ho for California! Women's Overland Diaries from the Huntington Library (San Marino, Calif., 1980)
Myres
Ho for California! Women's Overland Diaries from the Huntington Library
1980
John Reid, Law for the Elephant: Property and Social Behavior on the Overland Trail (San Marino, Calif., 1980)
Reid
Law for the Elephant: Property and Social Behavior on the Overland Trail
1980
2
John S. Hittell, A History of the City of San Francisco and Incidentally of the State of California (San Francisco, 1878), 206, 208.
Hittell
206
A History of the City of San Francisco and Incidentally of the State of California
1878
California Gold: The Beginning of Mining in the Far West (Cambridge, Mass., 1947; repr., Lincoln, Neb., 1965), 345-352
345
California Gold: The Beginning of Mining in the Far West
1947
3
Hittell, History of the City of San Francisco, 206
Hittell
206
History of the City of San Francisco
Hubert Howe Bancroft, Works (39 vols., San Francisco, 1882-1890), XXIII, 6
Bancroft
6
XXIII
Works
1882
4
Frank Soule, John H. Gihon, and James Nisbet, The Annals of San Francisco (New York and San Francisco, 1855), 548.
Soule
548
The Annals of San Francisco
1855
5
San Francisco Daily Alta California, Jan. 9, 1854.
Jan. 9
San Francisco Daily Alta California
1854
6
Sacramento Weekly Union, March 11, 1854.
March 11
Sacramento Weekly Union
1854
7
San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin, Feb. 24, 1860.
Feb. 24
San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin
1860
8
Oscar O. Winther, Express and Stagecoach Days in California (Stanford, 1936), 81-96, 150-158
Winther
150
81
Express and Stagecoach Days in California
1936
William Banning and George H. Banning, Six Horses (New York, 1930), 3-51
Banning
3
Six Horses
1930
9
Sacramento Weekly Union, Oct. 29, 1853.
Oct. 29
Sacramento Weekly Union
1853
10
John H. Kemble, The Panama Route, 1848-1869 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1943), passim.
Kemble
The Panama Route, 1848-1869
1943
11
W. Turrentine Jackson, "A New Look at Wells Fargo, Stagecoaches and the Pony Ex- press," California Historical Society Quarterly, XLV (1966), 291-324.
Jackson
291
XLV
California Historical Society Quarterly
1966
12
Sacramento Daily Union, Oct. 12, 17, Nov. 9, 1855.
Oct. 12
Sacramento Daily Union
1855
13
Peter R. Decker, Fortunes and Failures: White-Collar Mobility in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco (Cambridge, Mass., 1978), 9-13, 15-19, 23-25.
Decker
9
Fortunes and Failures: White-Collar Mobility in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco
1978
14
Ibid., 92.
Roger W. Lotchin's San Francisco, 1846-1856: From Hamlet to City (New York, 1974), 48-65
Lotchin
48
San Francisco, 1846-1856: From Hamlet to City
1974
15
Decker, Fortunes and Failures, 86.
Decker
86
Fortunes and Failures
16
Hittell, History of the City of San Francisco, 208, 215-217
Hittell
208
History of the City of San Francisco
Lotchin, San Francisco, 46- 47
Lotchin
46
San Francisco
Ernest or Ernst Seyd, California and Its Resources: A Work for the Merchant, the Capitalist, and the Emigrant (London, 1858), 14-16
Seyd
14
California and Its Resources: A Work for the Merchant, the Capitalist, and the Emigrant
1858
17
Hittell, History of the City of San Francisco, 228.
Hittell
228
History of the City of San Francisco
18
Hittell, History, 218-226
Hittell
218
History
Bancroft, Works, XXIII, 765
Bancroft
765
XXIII
Works
19
Lotchin's assertion that "by the year 1856 the success of San Francisco was assured." (San Francisco, 30.)
Lotchin
30
San Francisco
20
Decker, Fortunes and Failures, 125-143.
Decker
125
Fortunes and Failures
Lotchin, San Francisco, 245-275 and 384-385
Lotchin
245
San Francisco
21
Josiah Royce, California, from the Conquest in 1846 to the Second Vigilance Committee in San Francisco: A Study of American Character (Boston, 1886), 440.
Royce
440
California, from the Conquest in 1846 to the Second Vigilance Committee in San Francisco: A Study of American Character
1886
22
Richard Maxwell Brown, Strain of Violence: Historical Studies of American Violence and Vigilantes (New York, 1975), 134-143.
Brown
134
Strain of Violence: Historical Studies of American Violence and Vigilantes
1975
Seyd's contemptuous reference to "the Irish de- mocracy party ... who voted, whether citizens or not, under the guidance of a gang of med- dling politicians, Jesuits, demagogues, and ballot-box stuffers." California and Its Resources, 22.
Seyd
22
California and Its Resources
23
Rodman W. Paul, Mining Frontiers of the Far West, 1848-1880 (New York, 1963; repr., Albuquerque, N.M., 1974), 49-50.
Paul
49
Mining Frontiers of the Far West, 1848-1880
1963
24
lbid., 50
Lotchin, San Francisco, 65-67
Lotchin
65
San Francisco
25
Harvey W. Scott, ed., History of Portland, Oregon (Syracuse, N.Y., 1890), 139-142
Scott
139
History of Portland, Oregon
1890
Joseph Gaston, Portland, Oregon: Its History and Builders... (3 vols., Chicago and Portland, 1911), I, 238-240
Gaston
238
I
Oregon: Its History and Builders...
1911
Paul G. Merriam, "Portland Oregon, 1840-1890: A Social and Political History" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, 1971), passim
Malcolm Clark, Jr., Eden Seekers: The Settlement of Oregon, 1818-1862 (Boston, 1981)
Clark
Eden Seekers: The Settlement of Oregon, 1818-1862
1981
26
William Bowen, "The Oregon Frontiersman: A Demographic View," in Thomas Vaughan, ed., The Western Shore: Oregon Country Essays Honoring the American Revolution (Portland, Ore., 1975?), 181-197
Bowen
The Oregon Frontiersman: A Demographic View
181
The Western Shore: Oregon Country Essays Honoring the American Revolution
1975
Merriam, "Portland, Oregon," 20-23, 36-38, 186
Merriam
20
Portland, Oregon
James N. Tattersall, "The Economic Development of the Pacific Northwest to 1920" (Ph.D. disser- tation, University of Washington, 1960), 40-44
27
Arthur L. Throckmorton, Oregon Argonauts: Merchant Adventurers on the Western Frontier (Portland, Ore., 1961)
Throckmorton
Oregon Argonauts: Merchant Adventurers on the Western Frontier
1961
28
Tattersall, "Economic Development," 43-44
Tattersall
43
Economic Development
Merriam, "Portland, Oregon," 187- 188, 190-193, 218-219
Merriam
187
Portland, Oregon
29
Paul, Mining Frontiers, 50-51, 56-86
Paul
50
Mining Frontiers
Eliot Lord, Comstock Mining and Miners (Washington, D.C., 1883; repr., Berkeley, 1974).
Lord
Comstock Mining and Miners
1883
30
Titus F. Cronise, The Natural Wealth of California (San Francisco, 1868), 596-643.
Cronise
596
The Natural Wealth of California
1868
31
Rodman W. Paul, "The Wheat Trade between California and the United Kingdom," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XLV (1958), 391-412.10.2307/1889318
391
32
William J. Trimble, The Mining Advance into the Inland Empire (repr. edition, Rodman W. Paul, ed., New York, 1972), 67
Trimble
67
The Mining Advance into the Inland Empire
1972
33
Dorothy O. Johansen, "The Oregon Steam Navigation Com- pany: An Example of Capitalism on the Frontier," Pacific Historical Review, X (1941), 179- 18810.2307/3633635
179
Empire of the Columbia: A History of the Pacific Northwest (2nd ed., New York and Evanston, 1967), 279-282, 3102
279
Empire of the Columbia: A History of the Pacific Northwest
1967
Gaston, Portland, I, 270, 274
Gaston
270
I
Portland
34
Scott, History of Portland, 144
Scott
144
History of Portland
35
Matthew P. Deady, "Portland-on-Wallamet," Overland Monthly, 1st series, I (1868), 38- 39
Deady
1st series
38
I
Overland Monthly
1868
Merriam, "Portland, Oregon," 185, 215-216, 250-253
Merriam
185
Portland, Oregon
Tattersall, "Economic Devel- opment," 60-62, 76
Tattersall
60
Economic Development
36
Throckmorton, Oregon Argonauts
Scott, History of Portland
Gaston, Portland, again especially the biographies in volumes II and III
Gaston
II
Portland
Paul G. Merriam, "Urban Elite in the Far West: Portland, Oregon, 1870-1890," Arizona and the West, XVIII (1976), 41-52
Merriam
41
XVIII
Arizona and the West
1976
Mal- colm Clark, Jr., ed., Pharisee among Philistines: The Diary of Judge Matthew P Deady, 1871- 1892 (2 vols., Portland, Ore., 1975)
Clark
Pharisee among Philistines: The Diary of Judge Matthew P Deady, 18711892
1975
37
E. Kimbark MacColl, The Shaping of a City: Business and Politics in Portland, Oregon, 1885-1915 (Portland, Ore., 1976).
MacColl
The Shaping of a City: Business and Politics in Portland, Oregon, 1885-1915
1976
38
Oscar Lewis, Silver Kings: The Lives and Times of Mackay, Fair, Flood, and O'Brien, Lords of the Nevada Comstock Lode (New York, 1947).
Lewis
Silver Kings: The Lives and Times of Mackay, Fair, Flood, and O'Brien, Lords of the Nevada Comstock Lode
1947
39
David Lavender, The Great Persuader (New York, 1970)
Lavender
The Great Persuader
1970
Oscar Lewis, The Big Four: The Story of Huntington, Stanford, Hopkins, and Crocker, and of the Building of the Central Pacific (New York, 1938)
Lewis
The Big Four: The Story of Huntington, Stanford, Hopkins, and Crocker, and of the Building of the Central Pacific
1938
40
Neil L. Shumsky, "San Francisco's Workingmen Respond to the Modern City," Califor- nia Historical Quarterly, LV (1976), 46-57.
Shumsky
46
LV
California Historical Quarterly
1976
Robert A. Burchell, The San Francisco Irish, 1848-1880 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1980), esp. 38, 52-72, 179- 185
Burchell
38
The San Francisco Irish, 1848-1880
1980
Alexander Saxton, The Indispens- able Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1971)
Saxton
The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California
1971
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