[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Ronald K. Edgerton, "The Politics of Reconstruction in the Philippines, 1945-1948" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1975)
Violet E. Wurfel, "American Implementation of Philippine Inde- pendence" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1951)
Stephen R. Shalom, "U.S.-Philippine Relations: A Study of Neo-Colonialism" (Ph.D dissertation, Boston University, 1976)
Theodore Friend, Between Two Empires: The Ordeal of the Philippines, 1929-1946 (New Haven, 1965)
Friend
Between Two Empires: The Ordeal of the Philippines, 1929-1946
1965
Garel A. Grunder and William E. Livezey, The Philippines and the United States (Norman, 1951)
Grunder
The Philippines and the United States
1951
Milton W. Meyer, A Diplomatic History of the Philippine Republic (Honolulu, 1965)
Meyer
A Diplomatic History of the Philippine Republic
1965
David J. Steinberg, "The Philippines: Survival of an Oligarchy," in Josef Silverstein, ed., Southeast Asia in World War II: Four Essays (Yale University Southeast Asia Studies Monograph No. 7; New Haven, 1966), 67-86
Steinberg
The Philippines: Survival of an Oligarchy
67
Southeast Asia in World War II: Four Essays
1966
Philippine Collaboration in World War II (Ann Arbor, 1967)
Robert Aura Smith, Philippine Freedom, 1946-1958 (New York, 1958)
Smith
Philippine Freedom, 1946-1958
1958
Hernando J. Abaya, Betrayal in the Philippines (New York, 1946)
Abaya
Betrayal in the Philippines
1946
Bernard Seeman and Lawrence Salisbury, Crosscurrents in the Philippines (New York, 1946)
Seeman
Crosscurrents in the Philippines
1946
David Bernstein, The Philippine Story (New York, 1947)
Bernstein
The Philippine Story
1947
Shirley Jenkins, "The Philippines," in John F. Cady et al., The Development of Self-Rule in Burma, Malaya and the Philippines (New York, 1948), 80-104
Jenkins
The Philippines
80
The Development of Self-Rule in Burma, Malaya and the Philippines
1948
2
Peter W. Stanley, "The Forgotten Philippines, 1790-1946," in Ernest R. May and James C. Thomson Jr., eds., American- East Asian Relations: A Survey (Cambridge, Mass., 1972), 291-316
Stanley
The Forgotten Philippines, 1790-1946
291
American East Asian Relations: A Survey
1972
Renato Constantino, The Philip- pines: A Past Revisited (Quezon City, 1975)
Constantino
The Philippines: A Past Revisited
1975
3
David N. Rowe, in New York Times, Oct. 12, 1946, p. 5
Rowe
Oct. 12
5
New York Times
1946
"Military Bases Agreement between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines, March 14, 1947,"
"Military Assistance to the Philippines: Agreement between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines, March 21, 1947,"
"A Decade of American Foreign Policy: Basic Documents, 1941-1949," Sen. Doc. 123, 81 Cong., 1 sess. (1950), 869-885
4
Public Law 371, 79 Cong., 2 sess., in U.S. Statutes at Large, LX, 141ff
141
LX
U.S. Statutes at Large
Shirley Jenkins, American Economic Policy toward the Philippines (Stanford, 1954)
Jenkins
American Economic Policy toward the Philippines
1954
Frank H. Golay, "Economic Consequences of the Philip- pine Trade Act," Pacific Affairs, XXVIII (1955), 53-7010.2307/2753711
53
Frank H. Golay, The Philip- pines: Public Policy and National Economic Development (Ithaca, 1968)
Golay
The Philippines: Public Policy and National Economic Development
1968
Center for Strategic and International Studies, U.S.-Philippine Economic Relations (Special Report No. 12, Georgetown University; Washington, D.C., 1971)
Center for Strategic and International Studies
U.S.-Philippine Economic Relations
1971
Pedro E. Abelarde, American Tariff Policy Towards the Philippines, 1898-1946 (New York, 1947)
Abelarde
American Tariff Policy Towards the Philippines, 1898-1946
1947
Salvador Araneta, Economic Re-examination of the Philippines (Rizal, 1953)
Araneta
Economic Re-examination of the Philippines
1953
5
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1946 (Washington, D.C., 1962), 217
217
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1946
1962
Edward W. Mill, "The Philippines Prepares for Independence," U.S. Department of State Bulletin, XIV (1946), 982
Mill
982
XIV
U.S. Department of State Bulletin
1946
6
Benito Legarda, Jr., and Roberto Y. Garcia, "Economic Collaboration: The Trading Relationship," in Frank H. Golay, ed., The United States and the Philippines (Englewood Cliffs, 1966), 132-134
Legarda
Economic Collaboration: The Trading Relationship
132
The United States and the Philippines
1966
7
Philippine Department of Labor, Labor Statistics Division, "Wages and Working Conditions in Our Sugar Cane Haciendas in Negros Occidental," Philippine Labor (May 1962), 14
Philippine Department of Labor, Labor Statistics Division
May
14
Philippine Labor
1962
8
Benedict J. Kerkvliet, "Peasant Rebellion in the Philippines: The Origins and Growth of the HMB" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1972)
Renze L. Hoeksema, "Communism in the Philippines: A Historical and Analytical Study of Communism and the Communist Party in the Philippines and Its Relations to Communist Movements Abroad" (Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard Uni- versity, 1956)
Robert Ross Smith, The Hukbalahap Insurgency: Economic, Political, and Military Factors (Washington, D.C., photocopy, Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army, 1963)
Smith
The Hukbalahap Insurgency: Economic, Political, and Military Factors
1963
Luis Taruc, Born of the People (New York, 1953)
Taruc
Born of the People
1953
Dapen Liang, Philippine Parties and Politics (2nd edition, San Francisco, 1970)
Liang
2
Philippine Parties and Politics
1970
9
Hamza Alavi, "Imperialism, Old and New," in Ralph A. Miliband and John Saville, eds., Socialist Register, 1964 (New York, 1964), 104-126
Alavi
Imperialism, Old and New
104
Socialist Register, 1964
1964
Kenneth J. Twitchett, "Colonialism: An Attempt at Understanding Imperial, Colonial, and Neo-Colonial Relationships," Political Studies, XIII (1965), 300-323
Twitchett
300
XIII
Political Studies
1965
Jack Woddis, An Introduction to Neo-Colonialism (New York, 1967)
Woddis
An Introduction to Neo-Colonialism
1967
André Gunder Frank, Capitalism and Underdevelop- ment in Latin America (Rev. ed., New York, 1969), 281-318
Frank
281
Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America
1969
James O'Connor, "The Meaning of Economic Imperialism," in Robert I. Rhodes, ed., Imperialism and Under- development: A Reader (New York, 1970), 101-150
O'Connor
The Meaning of Economic Imperialism
101
Imperialism and Underdevelopment: A Reader
1970
Michael Barratt Brown, After Imperialism (Rev. ed., London, 1970)
Brown
After Imperialism
1970
Michael Barratt Brown, The Economics of Imperial- ism (Baltimore, 1974), 256-284
Brown
256
The Economics of Imperialism
1974
Johan Galtung, "A Structural Theory of Imperialism," Journal of Peace Research, VIII (1971), 81-11710.2307/422946
81
Harry Magdoff, "Imperialism Without Colonies," in R. J. Owen and R. B. Sutcliffe, eds., Studies in the Theory of Imperialism (London, 1972), 144-169
Magdoff
Imperialism Without Colonies
144
Studies in the Theory of Imperialism
1972
Shalom, "U.S.-Philippine Relations"
Jonathan Fast, "Imperialism and the Philippine Ruling Class," in The Philippines: End of an Illusion (London, 1973), II, 1-17
Fast
Imperialism and the Philippine Ruling Class
1
II
Philippines: End of an Illusion
1973
William J. Pomeroy, American Neo-Colonialism: Its Emergence in the Philippines and Asia (New York, 1970)
Pomeroy
American Neo-Colonialism: Its Emergence in the Philippines and Asia
1970
"The Philippines: A Case History of Neo-Colonialism," in Mark Selden, ed., Remaking Asia: Essays on the American Uses of Power (New York, 1974), 157-199
Selden
The Philippines: A Case History of Neo-Colonialism
157
Remaking Asia: Essays on the American Uses of Power
1974
10
Jenkins, American Economic Policy, 81-96, esp. 86-87, 91
Jenkins
81
American Economic Policy
Edgerton, "Politics of Reconstruction," 310-311, 336-337n157, 356-357
Edgerton
310
Politics of Reconstruction
Meyer mentions only that "parity" passed "by a slim and constitutionally questionable margin," Diplomatic History, 48
Meyer
48
Diplomatic History
Grunder and Livezey do not mention the congressional tactics at all in Philippines and the United States, 270, 272
Grunder
270
Philippines and the United States
Robert Aura Smith explicitly denies that the trade and rehabilitation acts were "necessarily interdependent," Philippine Freedom, 129-130
Smith
129
Philippine Freedom
11
"Public Law 370, 79 Cong., 2 sess., in U.S. Statutes at Large, LX, 128ff
128
LX
U.S. Statutes at Large
Jenkins, American Economic Policy, 64-69
Jenkins
64
American Economic Policy
12
Sen. Rep. 755, 79 Cong., 1 sess. (Nov. 1945), 4, 12-14
New York Times, Dec. 29, 1945, p. 12
Dec. 29
12
New York Times
1945
"Seventh and Final Report of the.High Commissioner to the Philippines," H. Doc. 389, 80 Cong., 1 sess. (1947), 20
13
Journal of W. Cameron Forbes, 2nd series, vol. 5, p. 581, Houghton Library, Harvard University.
2nd series
581
5
Journal of W. Cameron Forbes
14
House Committee on Insular Affairs, Hearings to Provide for the Rehabilitation of the Philippine Islands, 79 Cong., 2 sess. (1946), 119.
15
White House Bill File, S1610, April 30, 1946, Harry S. Truman Papers, Truman Library, Independence, Mo.
Public Papers of the Presidents, Truman, 1946, 217
16
Paul V. McNutt to Richard R. Ely, June 18, 1946
Richard B. Keech to Truman, June 21, 1946, Official File 1055, Feb.-June 1946, Truman Papers
17
Edgerton, "Politics of Reconstruction," 258-309
Edgerton
258
Politics of Reconstruction
Dante C. Simbulan, "A Study of the Socio- Economic Elite in Philippine Politics and Government" (Ph.D dissertation, Research School of Social Science, Australian National University, 1965)
18
'Edgerton, "Politics of Reconstruction," 305-306
Edgerton
305
Politics of Reconstruction
Friend, Between Two Empires, 249-251, 255-256
Friend
249
Between Two Empires
D. Clayton James, The Years of MacArthur, Vol. 2: 1941-1945 (Boston, 1975), 691-701
James
691
2
The Years of MacArthur
1975
19
U.S. Dept. of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1946 (Washington, D.C., 1971), VIII, 936
P.I. [Philippine Islands] to Meader, Sept. 24, 1947, file 711.96/9-2447, Dept. of State Papers, National Archives (hereafter cited as DSNA and file number)
E. Mill to Butterworth, Nov. 24, 1947, DSNA 896.00/11-2447
20
U.S. Dept. of State, Foreign Relations, 1946, VIII, 889-891, 893-894, 937-938
Philippine Cong. Rec., House (June 29, 1946), 511, 527
21
Phil. Cong. Rec., House (June 29, 1946), 530, passim
Manila Daily Bulletin, July 3, 1946, p. 8
July 3
8
Manila Daily Bulletin
1946
22
Bonifacio S. Salamanca, The Filipino Reaction to American Rule, 1901-1913 (New York, 1968), 171
Salamanca
171
The Filipino Reaction to American Rule, 1901-1913
1968
Friend, Between Two Empires, 4, 58-60, 187-190
Friend
58
4
Between Two Empires
Michael P. Onorato, "Leonard Wood as Governor General: A Calendar of Selected Correspondence, A Postscript," Philippine Studies, XIV (April 1966), 287-288
Onorato
April
287
XIV
Philippine Studies
1966
Peter W. Stanley, A Nation in the Making: The Philippines and the United States, 1899-1921 (Cambridge, Mass., 1974), 162
Stanley
162
A Nation in the Making: The Philippines and the United States, 1899-1921
1974
Joseph F. Hutchinson Jr., "Quezon's Role in Philippine Independence," in Norman G. Owen, ed., Compadre Colonialism: Studies on the Philippines Under American Rule (Michigan Papers on South and Southeast Asia No. 3, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971), 168-170
Hutchinson
Quezon's Role in Philippine Independence
168
Compadre Colonialism: Studies on the Philippines Under American Rule
1971
Gerald Wheeler, "The Movement to Reverse Philippine Independence," Pacific Historical Review, XXXIII (1964), 172, 175n2610.2307/3636594
172
23
Paul Steintorf to Secretary of State, May 23, 1945, DSNA 811B.00/5-2345.
24
Julius Edelstein to Secretary of State, Jan. 25, 1947, DSNA 711.96/1-2547
Manila Times, April 12, 1946, p. 1
April 12
1
Manila Times
1946
25
Paul McNutt to Richard R. Ely for John Snyder, June 14, 1946, John W. Snyder Papers, Truman Library.
26
F. L. Worcester, May 16, 1946, transmitted with Paul Steintorf to Secretary of State, May 23, 1946, DSNA 81 1B.00/5-2346
27
Manila Times, May 22, 1946, p. 1
May 22
1
Manila Times
1946
May 23, 1946, p. 1
May 24, 1946, p. 1
Kerkvliet, "Peasant Rebellion," 419-420
Kerkvliet
419
Peasant Rebellion
28
Phil. Cong. Rec., House (May 25, 1946), 12.
29
F. L. Worcester, June 1, 1946, DSNA 811B.00/6-746.
30
Phil. Cong. Rec., House (May 29, 1946), 73-74
Manila Times, May 7, 1946, p. 10
May 7
10
Manila Times
1946
May 30, 1946, p. 1
31
Phil. Cong. Rec., House (June 13, 1946), 257
(May 25, 1946), 32
Manila Times, May 26, 1946, p. 12
May 26
12
Manila Times
1946
F. L. Worcester, June 1, 1946, DSNA 81 1B.00/6-746
32
Phil. Cong. Rec., House (May 25, 1946), 34 (quotation), 36-38
Ramón Diokno, "Roxas Violates the Constitution," Amerasia, X (1946), 176
Diokno
176
X
Amerasia
1946
F. L. Worcester, June 1, 1946, DSNA 811B.00/6-746
Philippine Constitution (1935), art. 6, sec. 11
33
Phil. Cong. Rec., House (June 13, 1946), 250
(June 29, 1946), 510
(July 2, 1946), 670
Alejo Mabanag et al. v.Jose' López Vito et al., 78 Phil. Rep. 33 (March 5, 1947)
33
78
Phil. Rep.
1947
34
Manila Times, May 26, 1946, p. 12
May 26
12
Manila Times
1946
Diokno, "Roxas Violates the Constitution," 176-177
Diokno
176
Roxas Violates the Constitution
F. L. Worcester, June 1, 1946, DSNA 811B.00/6-746
35
F. L. Worcester, May 16, 1946, DSNA 811B.00/5-2346
R. R. Smith, Hukbalahap Insurgency, 64
Smith
64
Hukbalahap Insurgency
Hoeksema, "Communism in the Philippines," 272
Hoeksema
272
Communism in the Philippines
36
G-2 Liaison Office, Cabantuan, Nueva Ecija, Military Police Command Head- quarters, U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific, "Survey of Hukbalahap Activities, Nueva Ecija," Nov. 13, 1945, p. 11, Record Group 319, Federal Records Center, Suitland, Md.
37
Shalom, "U.S.-Philippine Relations," chap. 3
Shalom
chap. 3
U.S.-Philippine Relations
Kerkvliet, "Peasant Rebellion," passim
38
F. L. Worcester, Jan. 7, 1946, DSNA 811B.00/1-1546
F. L. Worcester, Jan. 15, 1946, DSNA 811B.00/1-1846
39
Manila Times, May 4, 1946, p. 1.
May 4
1
Manila Times
1946
40
Phil. Cong. Rec., Senate (Aug. 12, 1946), 328
Edgerton, "Politics of Reconstruction," 283
Edgerton
283
Politics of Reconstruction
41
Edgerton, "Politics of Reconstruction," 229
Edgerton
229
Politics of Reconstruction
42
F. L. Worcester, April 24, 1946, DSNA 811B.00/4-3046
Friend, Between Two Empires, 257
Friend
257
Between Two Empires
E. D. Hester to McNutt, April 12, 1946 (Records of the High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands, Record Group 126, National Archives)
Worcester's report of April 24, 1946
43
Phil. Cong. Rec., House (June 6, 1946), 136
andjosi O. Vera et al. v.Josie A. Avelino et al., 77 Phil. Rep., 305-308 (Aug. 31, 1946)
305
77
Phil. Rep.
1946
Phil. Cong Rec., House (May 29, 1946), 89
44
F. L. Worcester, April 30, 1946, DSNA 811B.00/5-1446.
45
Manila Times, April 25, 1946, p. 8
April 25
8
Manila Times
1946
Jenkins, American Economic Policy, 88-89
Jenkins
88
American Economic Policy
46
Manila Times, April 25, 1946, p. 1
April 25
1
Manila Times
1946
May 12, 1946, p. 12
Luis Taruc, He Who Rides the Tiger (New York, 1967), 26
Taruc
26
He Who Rides the Tiger
1967
Edgerton, "Politics of Reconstruction," 310-311
Edgerton
310
Politics of Reconstruction
S. Walter Washington to Secretary of State, transmitting memorandum of conversa- tion, August 14, 1948, DSNA 896.00/8-1448
R. R. Smith, Hukbalahap Insurgency, 66-67
Smith
66
Hukbalahap Insurgency
47
U.S. Dept. of State, Foreign Relations, 1946, VIII, 917
Edgerton, "Politics of Reconstruction," 358-359
Edgerton
358
Politics of Reconstruction
Paul McNutt to Secretary of State, Feb. 2, 1947, DSNA 896.00/2-247
48
Meyer, Diplomatic History, 50-51
Meyer
50
Diplomatic History
49
Mabanag v. López Vito, 78 Phil. Rep., 3, 31, passim
Phil. Cong. Rec., House (July 2, 1946), 677-678
Diokno, "Roxas Violates the Constitution," 177
Diokno
177
Roxas Violates the Constitution
50
U.S. Dept. of State Bulletin, XVI (June 29, 1947), 1275
Julius Edelstein to Secretary of State, Dec. 31, 1946, DSNA 896.00/12-3146
Manuel Roxas, Important Speeches, Messages and Other Pronouncements of President Manuel Roxas (Manila, 1947), 198-226, 381-422
Roxas
198
Important Speeches, Messages and Other Pronouncements of President Manuel Roxas
1947
51
Phil. Cong. Rec., Senate (Sept. 25, 1946), 4
Hernando J. Abaya, The Untold Philippine Story (Quezon City, 1967), 25
Abaya
25
The Untold Philippine Story
1967
Edgerton, "Politics of Reconstruction," 367
Edgerton
367
Politics of Reconstruction
Julius Edelstein to Secretary of State, Feb. 24, 1947, DSNA 896.00/2-2447
52
U.S. Cong. Rec., 80 Cong., 1 sess. (1947), A1158-A1159, A1192-A1193.
53
U.S. Dept. of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1947 (Washington, D.C., 1972), VI, 130, 130n.
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