[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Jonathan M. Wiener, "Class Structure and Economic Development in the American South," American Historical Review, LXXXIV (1979), 970-99210.2307/1904611
970
Eugene D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York, 1974)
Genovese
Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made
1974
2
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Negro Population in the United States, 1790-1915 (Washington, D.C., 1918; reprint 1969), 29, 33
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1957 (Washington, D.C., 1960), 12
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Negroes in the United States, 1920-1932 (Washington, D.C., 1935), 13
U.S. Census Office, Ninth Census, Vol. I: Statistics of the Population of the United States (Washington, D.C., 1872), 606-609
U.S. Census Office, Tenth Census, Vol. I: Statistics of the Population of the United States (Washington, D.C., 1883), 542-545
4
T. A. Larson, "Women's Role in the American West," Montana, XXIV (1941), 5
Larson
5
XXIV
Montana
1941
Mary W. Hargreaves, "Women in the Agricultural Settlement of the Northern Plains," Agricultural History, L (1976), 17910.2307/3741916
179
5
Seventh Census, xlii-xliv
Tenth Census, I, 542-545
Eleventh Census, I, 488
6
U.S. Census Office, Population in 1860
7
Negro Population, 1790-1915, 152, 156-157, 182, 184
Fourteenth Census: Population, II, 108
8
Negro Population, 1790-1915, 154
Negroes in U.S., 1920-32, 81
Fourteenth Census: Population, III, 74-1144
9
Negro Population, 1790-1915, 288, 290, 295-297
Negroes in U.S., 1920-32, 202, 204
10
Negro Population, 1790-1915, 247
Negroes in U.S., 1920-32, 151-152
Louis Robinson, "Richest Negro Family," Ebony, XVIII (Dec. 1962), 154-155
Robinson
Dec.
154
XVIII
Ebony
1962
11
Negro Population, 1790-1915, 182.
12
Rudolph M. Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush California (New Haven, 1977), 269
Lapp
269
Blacks in Gold Rush California
1977
H. Daniels, "Pioneer Urbanites: San Francisco Blacks from 1850 to World War II" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1975)
13
Herbert Guttman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925 (New York, 1977)
Guttman
The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925
1977
Ibid., 435-436
Ibid., 209, 212-213, 264-265
14
Noah Smithwick, The Evolution of a State, or Recollections of Old Texas Days (Austin, 1900), 15
Smithwick
15
The Evolution of a State, or Recollections of Old Texas Days
1900
155
Margaret Frink, Adventures of a Party of California Gold Seekers (Oakland, 1897), 92
Frink
92
Adventures of a Party of California Gold Seekers
1897
Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush, 30
Lapp
30
Blacks in Gold Rush
William L. Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (New York, 1971), 88, 99
Katz
88
Black People Who Made the Old West
1971
16
Topeka Daily Capitol, Aug. 29, 1937
Topeka
Aug. 29
Daily Capitol
1937
Glenn Schwendemann, "Nico- demus: Negro Haven on the Solomon," Kansas Historical Quarterly, XXXIV (1968), 14
Schwendemann
14
XXXIV
Kansas Historical Quarterly
1968
17
Arthur L. Tolson, "The Negro in Oklahoma Territory, 1889-1907: A Study in Racial Discrimination" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1966), 17-18.
18
Emma P. Ray, Twice Sold, Twice Ransomed: Autobiography of Mr. and Mrs. L. O. Ray (Chicago, 1926), 40
Ray
40
Twice Sold, Twice Ransomed: Autobiography of Mr. and Mrs. L. O. Ray
1926
Robert Athearn, The Coloradans (Albuquerque, 1976), 28-29
Athearn
28
The Coloradans
1976
19
Ronald G. Coleman, "Blacks in Utah History: An Unhuman Legacy," in Helen Papanikolas, ed., People of Utah (Salt Lake City, 1976), 117, 112
Coleman
Blacks in Utah History: An Unhuman Legacy
117
Helen Papanikolas
1976
Seventh Census, xliii-iv; Population in 1860, 595
20
Dorothy Gray, Women of the West (Millbrae, Calif., 1976), 64-66
Gray
64
Women of the West
1976
Lapp, Negroes in Gold Rush, 8-9, 121
Lapp
121
8
Negroes in Gold Rush
21
Eugene Berwanger, The Frontier against Slavery: Western Anti-Negro Prejudice and the Slavery Extension Controversy (Urbana, 1967), 118
Berwanger
118
The Frontier against Slavery: Western Anti-Negro Prejudice and the Slavery Extension Controversy
1967
William L. Katz, The Black West (Garden City, 1971), 58
Katz
58
The Black West
1971
Elmer R. Rusco, "Good Time Coming?" Black Nevadans in the Nineteenth Century (Westport, Conn., 1975), 207-209, 211
Rusco
Good Time Coming?
207
Black Nevadans in the Nineteenth Century
1975
Delilah L. Beasley, The Negro Trail Blazers of California (Los Angeles, 1919; reprint, New York, 1969), 56-65
Beasley
56
The Negro Trail Blazers of California
1919
22
Colored Californians," Crisis, VI (Aug. 1913), 194
Aug.
194
VI
Crisis
1913
San Francisco Examiner, June 4, 1903
June 4
San Francisco Examiner
1903
California Eagle, April 27, 1918, Sept. 13, 1919
April 27
California Eagle
1918
Anna G. Hedgeman, The Trumphet Sounds: A Memoir of Negro Leadership, 30-31
Hedgeman
30
The Trumphet Sounds: A Memoir of Negro Leadership
Gerda Lerner, ed., Black Women in White America (New York, 1972), 489-490
Lerner
489
Black Women in White America
1972
23
Lapp, Negroes in Gold Rush, 207
Lapp
207
Negroes in Gold Rush
San Francisco Elevator, Oct. 26, 1866
Oct. 26
San Francisco Elevator
1866
W. Sherman Savage, Blacks in the West (Westport, Conn., 1976), 152-153
Sherman
152
Blacks in the West
1976
24
California Eagle, Nov. 4, 1916, May 18, Aug. 3, Sept. 21, 1918
Nov. 4
California Eagle
1916
Rusco, Good Times, 205- 206
Rusco
205
Good Times
Athearn, Coloradans, 172
Athearn
172
Coloradans
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 241
Beasley
241
Negro Trail Blazers
California Eagle, June 6, 1914, Sept. 30, 1916
June 6
California Eagle
1914
25
Los Angeles Citizens Advocate, April 2, 1921
April 2
Los Angeles Citizens Advocate
1921
California Eagle, Nov. 16, 1918
Nov. 16
California Eagle
1918
26
Los Angeles Record, Jan. 6, 1903
Jan. 6
Los Angeles Record
1903
San Francisco Examiner, Jan. 8, 1903
Jan. 8
San Francisco Examiner
1903
"Along the Color Line," Crisis, X (May 1915), 12
May
12
X
Crisis
1915
27
Eighth Census: Population, 594-595
Census Office, Eighth Census of the United States: Mortality and Miscellaneous Statistics (Washington, D.C., 1866), 508
southern blacks. Negro Population, 1790-1915, 419
Negroes in U.S., 1920- 1932, 243
28
Smith, Daughters of the Promised Land (Boston, 1970), 224
Smith
224
Daughters of the Promised Land
1970
Thirteenth Census, I, 1116-1117
1116
I
Thirteenth Census
Fourteenth Census: Population, II, 1055-1057
1055
II
Fourteenth Census: Population
29
E. Wilburn Bock, "Farmer's Daughter Effect: The Case of the Negro Female Professions," Phylon, XXX (Spring 1969), 17-26
Bock
Spring
17
XXX
Phylon
1969
30
Rusco, Good Time, 80
Rusco
80
Good Time
James Guinn, History of California and Extended History of Los Angeles and Environs (Los Angeles, 1915), I, 384
Guinn
384
I
History of California and Extended History of Los Angeles and Environs
1915
Lapp, Gold Rush. 169-172
Lapp
169
Gold Rush
31
Gilbert T. Stephenson, Race Distinctions in American Law (1910; reprint, New York, 1969), 177-189
Stephenson
177
Race Distinctions in American Law
1910
Charles S. Mangum, Jr., The Legal Status of the Negro (Chapel Hill, 1940), 79-82. By 1930
Mangum
79
The Legal Status of the Negro
1940
32
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 121, 186.
Beasley
186
121
Negro Trail Blazers
33
California Eagle, May 13, 1916
May 13
California Eagle
1916
Los Angeles Evening Express, Dec. 2, 1919
Dec. 2
Los Angeles Evening Express
1919
"Along the Color Line," Crisis, VII (Dec. 1913), 63
Dec.
63
VII
Crisis
1913
34
Eleventh Census: Population, II, 169
169
II
Eleventh Census: Population
Eleventh Census: Population, II, xxviii-ix
xxviii
II
Eleventh Census: Population
35
Berlinda Davison, "Educational Status of the Negro in the San Francisco Bay Region" (M.A. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1921) 40-43.
36
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 173-178, 123
Beasley
123
173
Negro Trail Blazers
Lapp, Negroes in Gold Rush, 184
Lapp
184
Negroes in Gold Rush
San Francisco Elevator, July 5 and 16, 1867
July 5
San Francisco Elevator
1867
Delilah Beasley, "California Colored Women Trail Blazers," in Hallie Q. Brown, ed., Homespun Heroines and Other Women of Distinction (Xania, Ohio, 1926), 241-242
Beasley
California Colored Women Trail Blazers
241
Homespun Heroines and Other Women of Distinction
1926
U.S. Census Office, Twelfth Census of the United States: Special Report, Occupations (Washington, D.C., 1904), 226-422
37
Nell I. Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (New York, 1977), 50.
Painter
50
Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction
1977
38
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistics of Women at Work (Washington, D.C., 1907), 12, 20
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States, 1920: Population, IV: Occupations (Washington, D.C., 1923), 362, 744
39
Fourteenth Census, Population, IV, 362.
40
David M. Katzman, Seven Days a Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America (New York, 1978), 81-84
Katzman
81
Seven Days a Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America
1978
U.S. Census Bureau, Women at Work, 13, 15, 20-22.
41
Eleventh Census: Population, II, 348-349
Twelfth Census: Occupations, 155-157
Fourteenth Census: Population, IV, 878-1048
Lorenzo Greene and Carter G. Woodson, The Negro Wage Earner (Washington, D.C., 1930), 39
Greene
39
The Negro Wage Earner
1930
42
Schwendemann, "Nicodemus," 16-19
Schwendemann
16
Nicodemus
Negro Population, 1780-1915, 507-508
507
Negro Population
1780
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population, IV: Occupation Statistics (Washington, D.C., 1914), 468-534
Mark Reisler, By the Sweat of Their Brow: Mexican Immigrant Labor in the United States, 1900-1940 (Westport, 1976), chap. 4
Reisler
chap. 4
By the Sweat of Their Brow: Mexican Immigrant Labor in the United States, 1900-1940
1976
Charlotta Bass, Forty Years (Los Angeles, 1960), 12-13
Bass
12
Forty Years
1960
43
Larson, "Women's Role," 5
Larson
5
Women's Role
Mary P. Ryan, Womanhood in American: From Colonial Times to the Present (New York, 1975), 218
Ryan
218
Womanhood in American: From Colonial Times to the Present
1975
44
San Francisco Elevator, March 16, 1866.
March 16
San Francisco Elevator
1866
45
Painter, Exodusters, 153-257
Painter
153
Exodusters
Harris Newmark, Sixty Years in Southern California, 1853-1913 (Boston, 1930), 120
Newmark
120
Sixty Years in Southern California, 1853-1913
1930
46
Katzman, Seven Days, 289-290.
Katzman
289
Seven Days
47
Isabel Eaton, "Special Report on Negro Domestic Service in the Seventh Ward, Philadelphia," in W.E.B. Du Bois, The Philadelphia Negro (Philadelphia, 1899), 467
Eaton
Special Report on Negro Domestic Service in the Seventh Ward, Philadelphia
467
The Philadelphia Negro
1899
Katzman, Seven Days, 246-247
Katzman
246
Seven Days
California Eagle, Jan. 23, 1915
Jan. 23
California Eagle
1915
48
Katzman, Seven Days, 150
Katzman
150
Seven Days
Eaton, "Report on Negro Domestic Service," 444
Eaton
444
Report on Negro Domestic Service
Elizabeth R. Haynes, "Negroes in Domestic Service in the United States,"Journal of Negro History, VIII (1923), 426-42810.2307/2713693
426
49
Katzman, Seven Days, 55, 246-247
Katzman
246
55
Seven Days
Haynes, "Negroes in Domestic Service," 422, 424-425
Haynes
422
Negroes in Domestic Service
George Hamilton Fitch, "Races and Labor Problems in California," Chautau- quan XXXIV (1897), 431
Fitch
431
XXXIV
Chautauquan
1897
San Francisco Elevator, March 16, 1866
March 16
San Francisco Elevator
1866
Oakland Sunshine, Dec. 21, 1907
Dec. 21
Oakland Sunshine
1907
Los Angeles New Age, June 26, 1914
June 26
Los Angeles New Age
1914
50
Savage, Blacks in West, 122-123.
Savage
122
Blacks in West
51
W. Sherman Savage, "Mary Ellen Pleasant," in Edward T. James et al., eds., Notable American Women (3 vols., Cambridge, 1971), III, 75-76
Savage
Mary Ellen Pleasant
75
III
Notable American Women
1971
Helen Holdredge, Mammy Pleasant (New York, 1953)
Holdredge
Mammy Pleasant
1953
W. Burt, Negroes in the Early West (New York, 1969), 80-83
Burt
80
Negroes in the Early West
1969
Francis Lortie, San Francisco's Black Community, 1870-1890 (San Francisco, 1976), 11, 14, 24-27
Lortie
11
San Francisco's Black Community, 1870-1890
1976
James de T. Abajian, comp., Blacks in Selected Newspapers, Censuses and Other Sources: An Index to Names and Subjects (3 vols., Boston, 1977), III, 75-76
Abajian
75
III
Blacks in Selected Newspapers, Censuses and Other Sources: An Index to Names and Subjects
1977
Lapp, Blacks in Gold Rush, 100
Lapp
100
Blacks in Gold Rush
Lerone Bennett, Jr., "The Mystery of Mary Ellen Pleasant," Ebony, XXXIV (April 1979), 90-96
Bennett
April
90
XXXIV
Ebony
1979
52
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 244
Beasley
244
Negro Trail Blazers
Newmark, Sixty Years in Southern California, 138
Newmark
138
Sixty Years in Southern California
Los Angeles Times, Feb. 17, 1909
Feb. 17
Los Angeles Times
1909
53
Donna Mungen, Life and Times of Biddy Mason: From Slavery to Wealthy California Laundress (N.p., 1976)
Mungen
Life and Times of Biddy Mason: From Slavery to Wealthy California Laundress
1976
Gray, Women of West, 66-67
Gray
66
Women of West
Los Angeles Times, Feb. 12, 1909
Feb. 12
Los Angeles Times
1909
Miriam Matthews, "The Negro in California from 1789 to 1910: An Annotated Bibliography" (Berkeley, 1955), xxiii-iv
Matthews
xxiii
The Negro in California from 1789 to 1910: An Annotated Bibliography
1955
54
Kathleen Bruyn, "Aunt" Clara Brown: Story of a Black Pioneer (Boulder, Colo., 1970), 55-81, 101, 148
Bruyn
Aunt
55
Clara Brown: Story of a Black Pioneer
1970
Le Roy R. Hafen, ed., Colorado and Its People (4 vols., New York, 1948), II, 220-221, 564-565
Hafen
220
II
Colorado and Its People
1948
55
N. F. Mossell, The Work of the Afro-American Woman (Freeport, N.Y., 1894), 24
Mossell
24
The Work of the Afro-American Woman
1894
Pacific Coast Appeal, Dec. 21, 1901
Dec. 21
Pacific Coast Appeal
1901
California Eagle, Sept. 25, 1915
Sept. 25
California Eagle
1915
Negro Population, 1790-1915, 521-522
521
Negro Population
1790
Manuscript Report of the Census of Los Angeles County, 1870, Bancroft Library
San Francisco Elevator, May 17, 1873
May 17
San Francisco Elevator
1873
56
Ray, Twice Sold, 36
Ray
36
Twice Sold
57
Bass, Forty Years, 30
Bass
30
Forty Years
Abajian, Blacks in Selected Newspapers, I, 221-222, 649, 716
Abajian
221
I
Blacks in Selected Newspapers
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 242
Beasley
242
Negro Trail Blazers
California Eagle, Nov. 25, 1916, April 10, 1925
Nov. 25
California Eagle
1916
Carleton Moss, "The Negro in American Films," Freedomways, III (1963), 136-137
Moss
136
III
Freedomways
1963
Thomas Cripps, Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Films, 1900-1942 (New York, 1977), 97
Cripps
97
Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Films, 1900-1942
1977
58
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 239-240
Beasley
239
Negro Trail Blazers
California Eagle, July 27, 1916
July 27
California Eagle
1916
Cripps, Slow Fade, 130, 254, 271-272, 282-283, 295
Cripps
254
130
Slow Fade
59
Los Angeles Times, July 18, Oct. 28, 1918
July 18
Los Angeles Times
1918
California Eagle, May 6, 1916
May 6
California Eagle
1916
60
Abajian, Blacks in Selected Newspapers, III, 723
Abajian
723
III
Blacks in Selected Newspapers
California Eagle, Nov. 3, 1917, June 22, 1918
Nov. 3
California Eagle
1917
A. W. Hunton, "The Club Movement in California," Crisis, V (Dec. 1912), 9
Hunton
Dec.
9
V
Crisis
1912
61
Beasley, "California Colored Women," 240
Beasley
240
California Colored Women
Lortie, San Francisco Black Community, 13-14
Lortie
13
San Francisco Black Community
Lapp, Negro in Gold Rush, 110, 113-114
Lapp
110
Negro in Gold Rush
62
Seattle World, Jan. 4, 1889
Jan. 4
Seattle World
1889
Herbert Asbury, Barbary Coast (New York, 1933), 255, 257, 269
Asbury
255
Barbary Coast
1933
Jesse Kimbrough, Defender of the Angels: A Black Policeman in Old Los Angeles (London, 1969), 36-39, 122-124
Kimbrough
36
Defender of the Angels: A Black Policeman in Old Los Angeles
1969
Robert C. Francis, "A Survey of Negro Business in the San Francisco Bay Region" (M.A. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1928), 20
63
Erwin N. Thompson, "The Negro Soldier and His Officers," in John M. Carroll, ed., The Black Military Experience in the American West (New York, 1971), 182
Thompson
The Negro Soldier and His Officers
182
The Black Military Experience in the American West
1971
W. Porter, "Negro Labor in the Western Cattle Industry," Labor History X (1969), 327
Porter
327
X
Labor History
1969
L. Ricards, "The Prostitutes and Gamblers of Virginia City, Nevada: 1870," Pacific Historical Review, XLVIII (1979), 24510.2307/3639274
245
Rusco, Good Time, 137, 202
Rusco
137
Good Time
U.S. Census Office, Ninth Census, Vol. II: Vital Statistics (Washington, D.C., 1886), 648
Negro Population, 1790-1915, 149-50
149
Negro Population
1790
64
Ray, Twice Sold, 84-85
Ray
84
Twice Sold
Blackburn and Ricards, "Prostitutes and Gamblers," 246
Blackburn
246
Prostitutes and Gamblers
Califyrnia Eagle, Nov. 25, 1916
Nov. 25
Califyrnia Eagle
1916
Homer K. Watson, "A Study of the Causes of Delinquency among Fifty Negro Boys Assigned to Special Schools in Los Angeles" (M.A. thesis, University of Southern California, 1923), 40-42
65
Bass, Forty Years, 49-50.
Bass
49
Forty Years
66
Calibornia Eagle, June 12, 1915, March 15, 1919.
June 12
Calibornia Eagle
1915
67
California Eagle, Sept. 20, 1920.
Sept. 20
California Eagle
1920
68
Bruyn, 'Aunt' Clara Brown, 44, 159
Bruyn
Aunt
159
44
Clara Brown
Lapp, Negro in Gold Rush, 164
Lapp
164
Negro in Gold Rush
Beasley, "California Colored Women," 243-244
Beasley
243
California Colored Women
The Forum (April 18, 1908), 3
April 18
3
The Forum
1908
California Eagle, March 24, 1917
March 24
California Eagle
1917
69
Abajian, Blacks in Selected Newspapers, I, 74
Abajian
74
I
Blacks in Selected Newspapers
Eleanor Flexner, Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States (Cambridge, Mass., 1959), 186-188
Flexner
186
Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States
1959
Lerner, Black Women, 437, 440-441
Lerner
437
Black Women
70
Abajian, Blacks in Selected Newspapers, III, 441
Abajian
441
III
Blacks in Selected Newspapers
Hunton, "Club Movement in California," 90-91
Hunton
90
Club Movement in California
Colored Directory of the Leading Cities of Northern California: 1916-17 (Oakland, 1917), 73-77
73
Colored Directory of the Leading Cities of Northern California: 1916-17
1917
71
Sojourner Truth Industrial Club, Golden Anniversary, 1905-1954 (Los Angeles, 1954)
Sojourner Truth Industrial Club
Golden Anniversary, 1905-1954
1954
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 228
Beasley
228
Negro Trail Blazers
Cripps, Slow Fade, 109
Cripps
109
Slow Fade
"Some Facts concerning Sojourner Truth Home," box 838
72
Haynes, "Negroes in Domestic Service," 435
Haynes
435
Negroes in Domestic Service
Hunton, "Club Movement in Cali- fornia," 90
Hunton
90
Club Movement in California
Los Angeles Tribune, April 5, 1914
April 5
Los Angeles Tribune
1914
California Eagle, May 16, 1914
May 16
California Eagle
1914
73
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 234-235
Beasley
234
Negro Trail Blazers
California Eagle, Dec. 14, 1918
Dec. 14
California Eagle
1918
Colored Directory of Northern California: 1916-17, 72
72
Colored Directory of Northern California
1916
74
T. A. Larson, "Dolls, Vassals and Drudges-Pioneer Women in the West," Western Historical Quarterly, III (1972), 13-1410.2307/967705
13
Beverly Beeton, "Women Suffrage in the American West, 1869-1896" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah, 1976), 56-58, 160-173
75
Aileen S. Kraditor, The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890-1920 (Garden City, 1970), 114, 158
Kraditor
114
The Ideas of the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1890-1920
1970
S. Jay Walker, "Frederick Douglass and Woman Suffrage," Black Scholar, IV (1973), 28-29
Walker
28
IV
Black Scholar
1973
76
Beeton, "Woman Suffrage," 206
Beeton
206
Woman Suffrage
William Chafe, Women and Equality: Changing Patterns in American Culture (New York, 1977), 124
Chafe
124
Women and Equality: Changing Patterns in American Culture
1977
T. A. Larson, "Montana Women and the Battle for the Ballot," Montana, XXIII (1973), 32
Larson
32
XXIII
Montana
1973
77
Elizabeth C. Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda J. Gage, Ida H. Harper, History of Woman Suffrage (6 vols., reprint, New York, 1969), V. 77
Elizabeth
77
V
History of Woman Suffrage
1969
78
Ibid., IV, 490, 494-499
Elizabeth
494
IV
History of Woman Suffrage
1969
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 323
Beasley
323
Negro Trail Blazers
Jessie Fauset, "Out of the West," Crisis, XXVI (Nov. 1923), 18
Fauset
Nov.
18
XXVI
Crisis
1923
Woman's Era, I (June 9, 1894), 18
June 9
18
I
Woman's Era
1894
Adella H. Logan, "Colored Women as Voters," Crisis, V (Sept. 1912), 243
Logan
Sept.
243
V
Crisis
1912
79
Califrnia Eagle, Nov. 24, 1917
Nov. 24
Califrnia Eagle
1917
Athearn, Colorodans, 159-161
Athearn
159
Colorodans
Joseph R. Gusfield, Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement (Urbana, 1963), 100-105
100
Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement
1963
80
Gusfield, Symbolic Crusade, 72, 108-109
Gusfield
108
72
Symbolic Crusade
California Eagle, Jan. 23, 1915, Oct. 28
Jan. 23
California Eagle
1915
Alfreda M. Duster, ed., Crusade Jbr Justice: Autobiography of Ida B. Wells (Chicago, 1970), 150-151
Duster
150
Crusade Jbr Justice: Autobiography of Ida B. Wells
1970
Mrs. Dorcas Spencer, The History of the WCTU of Northern and Central Cali Jornia (Oakland, 1913), chaps. 12-13
Spencer
chaps. 12
The History of the WCTU of Northern and Central Cali Jornia
1913
81
Monroe Majors, Noted Negro Women: Their Triumphs and Activities (Reprint, Freeport, N.Y., 1971), 85
Majors
85
Noted Negro Women: Their Triumphs and Activities
1971
Ray, Twice Sold, 68, 113
Ray
113
68
Twice Sold
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 241
Beasley
241
Negro Trail Blazers
Los Angeles Tribune, Oct. 11, 1914
Oct. 11
Los Angeles Tribune
1914
Cali Jornia Eagle, Oct. 21, 1916
Oct. 21
Cali Jornia Eagle
1916
82
Spencer, WCTU in California, 122-123
Spencer
122
WCTU in California
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 132
Beasley
132
Negro Trail Blazers
Ray, Twice Sold, 71
Ray
71
Twice Sold
Majors, Noted Negro Women, 85
Majors
85
Noted Negro Women
California Eagle, Oct. 21, 1916
Oct. 21
California Eagle
1916
83
Chafe, Women and Equality, 4
Chafe
4
Women and Equality
Helen Hacker, "Women as a Minority Group," Social Forces, XXX (Oct. 1951), 60-6910.2307/2571742
60
84
Chafe, Women and Equality, 51-52
Chafe
51
Women and Equality
Gerda Lerner, "Women in American History," Journal of Social History, I (1969), 5810.2307/3786647
58
85
Guttman, Black Family, 167
Guttman
167
Black Family
Beasley, Negro Trail Blazers, 228
Beasley
228
Negro Trail Blazers
Haynes, "Negroes in Domestic Service," 391-392
Haynes
391
Negroes in Domestic Service
86
Ryan, Womanhood, 139-142, 186-187
Ryan
139
Womanhood
Johnny Faragher and Christine Stansell, "Women and Their Families on the Overland Trail to California and Oregon, 1842- 1867," Feminist Studies, II (1975), 15310.2307/3177779
153
87
Lerner, Black Women, xxv
Lerner
xxv
Black Women
Robert Staples, "The Myth of the Black Matriarchy," Black Scholar, I (Feb. 1970), 13
Staples
Feb.
13
I
Black Scholar
1970
88
Wiener, "Class Structure and Economic Development," 984
Wiener
984
Class Structure and Economic Development
89
William J. Wilson, The Declining Significance of Race (Chicago, 1978), 21.
Wilson
21
The Declining Significance of Race
1978
90
Who's Who among the Women of Caliqornia, 1921-22 (San Francisco, 1922).
Who
Who among the Women of Caliqornia, 1921-22
1922
This content is only available via PDF.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview