[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (New York, 1962)
Williams
The Tragedy of American Diplomacy
1962
N. Gordon Levin, Jr., Woodrow Wilson and World Politics: Amer- ica's Response to War and Revolution (New York, 1968)
Levin
Woodrow Wilson and World Politics: America's Response to War and Revolution
1968
Carl P. Parrini, Heir to Em- pire: United States Economic Diplomacy, 1916-1923 (Pittsburgh, 1969)
Parrini
Heir to Empire: United States Economic Diplomacy, 1916-1923
1969
Joan Hoff Wilson, American Business & Foreign Policy, 1920-1933 (Kentucky, 1971)
Wilson
American Business & Foreign Policy, 1920-1933
1971
Paul Abra- hams, "American Bankers and the Economic Tactics of Peace," Journal of American History, XLVI (1969), 572-58310.2307/1904207
572
Robert H. Van Meter, "The United States and European Recovery, 1918-1923: A Study of Public Policy and Private Finance" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971)
2
Norman Davis, n.d., box 15, Norman Davis Papers, Library of Congress
3
Edwin F. Gay, "Economic Defensive: Strategic 'Key' Resources and the 'Master Key' Shipping, Summary," June 11, 1918
Gay
June 11
Economic Defensive: Strategic 'Key' Resources and the 'Master Key' Shipping, Summary
1918
RG 32
William B. Colver, of the Federal Trade Commission, to Woodrow Wilson, Nov. 16, 1918, series 2, box 188, Woodrow Wilson Papers, Library of Congress
4
Hurley to Wilson, March 2, 1918, file 34514, RG 32
Hurley to Bernard Baruch, chairman of the War Industries Board, May 21, 1918, file 77270, Record Group 40
RG 40
5
Fritz Fischer, Germany's War Aims in the First World War (New York, 1967), 98-119
Fischer
98
Germany's War Aims in the First World War
1967
6
American ambassador, Paris, to the Secretary of State, June 22, 1916
U.S. Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1916 (Washington, D.C., 1929)
National Foreign Trade Council, European Economic Alliances: A Com- pilation of Information on International Commercial Policies After the European War and Their Efect Upon the Foreign Trade of the United States (New York, 1916), 7-16, 23-24
National Foreign Trade Council
7
European Economic Alliances: A Compilation of Information on International Commercial Policies After the European War and Their Efect Upon the Foreign Trade of the United States
1916
7
Lansing to Wilson, June 23, 1916
U.S. Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: The Lansing Papers, 1914-1920 (2 vols., Washington, D.C., 1939), I, 311-312
8
Jeremiah Jenks, "Financial Assistance to Certain Latin American Countries," 1918, file 811.51/2058
RG 59
9
Jenks, "Financial Assistance," 1918
Jenks
Financial Assistance
1918
Glenn Stewart, March 4, 1918
Frank Polk to the Secretary of the Treasury, April 3 and Aug. 8, 1918
A. S. [Albert Strauss] to Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Russell Leffingwell, Aug. 21, 1918, all in RG 59, file 811.51/2058, 267, 417a, 616a, 2063
10
Hurley to Baruch, May 21, 1919, file 77270, RG 40
J. E. Spurr, a mining engineer attached to the Shipping Board, in Lester Woolsey to Lansing, May 25, 1918
Lansing to Secretary of Commerce William Redfield, June 6, 1918, file 77270, RG 40
"Relation Between the United States and Other Coun- tries Regarding Important Raw Materials," Allied Maritime Transport Council, American Section, Jan. 6, 1919, file 084.08, RG 32
11
Charles Seymour, ed., The Intimate Papers of Colonel House (4 vols., Boston and New York, 1926-1928), I, 240, 241, 264-267
Seymour
240
I
The Intimate Papers of Colonel House
1926
Ray Stannard Baker, ed., Woodrow Wilson, Life and Letters (8 vols., Garden City, 1927-1939), V, 25-26, 28-29, 30, 31, 42- 44
Baker
25
V
Woodrow Wilson, Life and Letters
1927
Burton J. Hendrick, ed., The Life and Letters of Walter H. Page (3 vols., Garden City, 1922-1925), I, 194-195, 210-213, 215-217, 270-283
Hendrick
194
I
The Life and Letters of Walter H. Page
1922
12
Redfield to Hurley, May 28, 1918, file 77270, RG 40.
13
Redfield to Frank Taussig of the Tariff Commission, Nov. 16, 1918, file 77270, RG 40.
14
Taussig to Redfield, Nov. 30, 1918, file 78075, RG 40.
15
Gay, "Economic Defensive: Strategic 'Key' Resources and the 'Master Key' Ship- ping, Summary," June 11, 1918, file 34514, RG 32.
Gay
June 11
Economic Defensive: Strategic 'Key' Resources and the 'Master Key' Shipping, Summary
1918
16
Burton I. Kaufman, "The Organizational Dimension of United States Economic Foreign Policy, 1900-1920," Business History Review, XLVI (1972), 4010.2307/3112774
40
17
Wilson, "Acceptance Speech," Sept. 2, 1916
Wilson
Sept. 2
Acceptance Speech
1916
Ray S. Baker and William E. Dodd, eds., The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson (6 vols., New York, 1925-1927), IV, 289
Baker
289
IV
The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson
1925
Wilson to Lansing, Feb. 7, 1917
Foreign Relations: Lansing Papers, I, 19-22
19
I
Foreign Relations: Lansing Papers
18
Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull (2 vols., New York, 1948), I, 81-82
Hull
81
I
The Memoirs of Cordell Hull
1948
19
Baruch to Wilson, Oct. 23, 1918, series 2, box 186, Wilson Papers.
20
Culbertson Diary, Sept. 2, 1918, box 4, William S. Culbertson Papers, Library of Congress
Wilson, "Address Opening the Campaign for the Fourth Liberty Loan," Sept. 27, 1918
Wilson
Sept. 27
Address Opening the Campaign for the Fourth Liberty Loan
1918
Baker and Dodd, eds., Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson, V, 257- 258
Baker
257
V
Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson
Lindsay Russell, chairman, Council on Foreign Relations, to Redfield, March 1, 1919
Redfield to Russell, March 3, 1919, file 78075, RG 40
Hurley Diary, Oct. 24, 1918
Hurley to Wilson, Dec. 12, 1918
Hurley Diary entry for Dec. 15, 1918
Hurley Papers; and speech by William McAdoo in New York City, May 26, 1919, box 564, William Gibbs Mc- Adoo Papers, Library of Congress
21
Gabriel Kolko, The Triumph of Conservatism (London, 1963), 275-276
Kolko
275
The Triumph of Conservatism
1963
Grant McConnell, Private Power i& American Democracy (New York, 1966), 59-64
McConnell
59
Private Power i& American Democracy
1966
Robert Wiebe, The Search for Order (New York, 1967), 220, 293-301
Wiebe
220
The Search for Order
1967
22
Grosvenor B. Clarkson, Industrial America in the World War: The Strategy Behind the Line, 1917-1918 (Boston and New York, 1923), 475-488
Clarkson
475
Industrial America in the World War: The Strategy Behind the Line, 1917-1918
1923
Robert Cuff, The War Industries Board: Business-Government Relations During World War I (Baltimore and London, 1973), 241-264
Cuff
241
The War Industries Board: Business-Government Relations During World War I
1973
23
Robert Himmelberg, "Business, Antitrust Policy, and the Industrial Board of the Department of Commerce, 1919," Business History Review, XLII (1968), 1-2310.2307/3112012
1
24
Wilson to Hurley, May 12, 1916
Baker and Dodd, eds., Public Papers of Wood- row Wilson, II, 167-168
Baker
167
II
Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson
Kolko, Triumph of Conservatism, 276
Kolko
276
Triumph of Conservatism
Parrini, Heir to Em- pire, 8-9, 27-31
Kaufman, "Organizational Dimension of United States Economic Foreign Policy," 22-29, 41
Kaufman
22
Organizational Dimension of United States Economic Foreign Policy
Martin Sklar, "Woodrow Wilson and the Political Eco- nomy of Modern United States Liberalism," Studies on the Left, I (1960), 36
Sklar
36
I
Studies on the Left
1960
Cleona Lewis, America's Stake in International Investments (Washington, D.C., 1938), 186
Lewis
186
America's Stake in International Investments
1938
25
Redfield to Hurley, May 28, 1918, file 77270, RG 40.
26
Gay, "Economic Defensive: Strategic 'Key' Resources and the 'Master Key' Ship- ping, Summary," June 11, 1918, file 34514, RG 32
Gay
June 11
Economic Defensive: Strategic 'Key' Resources and the 'Master Key' Shipping, Summary
1918
Hurley to Wilson, Dec. 12, 1918
Hurley Diary entry for Dec. 15, 1918, Hurley Papers
27
Anderson to Baruch, June 13, 1918, box 32
Chandler P. Anderson Diary, June 14, 1918, box 2, ibid
28
Frank Cobb, undated memorandum for Colonel Edward House, Frank Cobb Papers, Library of Congress (Cobb's papers are annexed to the Woodrow Wilson Papers, series 14, no. 19).
29
Philip B. Kennedy, "British Trade Attitude Towards the United States," Nov. 22, 1918, file 413.1
Kennedy
Nov. 22
British Trade Attitude Towards the United States
1918
30
Colville Barclay, for the British ambassador, to the Secretary of State, June 12, 1918, file 611.4131/58, RG 59
Hurley to Wilson, Sept. 7, 1918, series 2, box 183, Wilson Papers
Anderson Diary, May 1 and May 16, 1918, box 2, Anderson Papers
Richard Crawford to Frank Polk, Oct. 15, 1918
Foreign Relations, 1918, supple- ment I (2 vols., Washington, D.C., 1930), I, 612-614
612
I
Foreign Relations, 1918
1930
31
Joseph Cotton to Herbert Hoover, Oct. 30 and Nov. 8, 1918
Suda Lorena Bane and Ralph Haswell Lutz, eds., The Organization of American Relief in Europe, 1918-1919 (Stanford, 1943), 30-32, 39-40
Bane
30
The Organization of American Relief in Europe, 1918-1919
1943
"Resolution Approved by the British War Cabinet, November 13, 1918," in James A. Salter, Allied Shipping Control (Oxford, 1921), 329
Salter
Resolution Approved by the British War Cabinet, November 13, 1918
329
Allied Shipping Control
1921
Raymond Stevens and George Rublee to Edwin Gay and Edward Hurley, Nov. 16, 1918, file 800.88/217, RG 59
Oscar Crosby to the Secretary of the Treasury, Oct. 25, 1918
RG 39
32
Wilson, "Address to Congress on the High Cost of Living," Aug. 8, 1919
Wilson
Aug. 8
Address to Congress on the High Cost of Living
1919
Baker and Dodd, eds., Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson, V, 569
Baker
569
V
Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson
33
Levin, Woodrow Wilson and World Politics, 23-26, 125-153
Levin
23
Woodrow Wilson and World Politics
34
Hurley to Wilson, Sept. 7, 1918
Wilson to Hurley, Sept. 9, 1918, series 2, box 183, Wilson Papers
35
Anderson Diary, Nov. 16, 1918, box 2, Anderson Papers
36
Draft telegram from Baruch to Alexander Legge and Leland Summers, Nov. 16, 1918, box 33, Anderson Papers
Anderson Diary, Nov. 16, 1918, box 2, ibid
37
Hoover to Wilson, Oct. 24, 1918
Hoover to Cotton, Nov. 14, 1918
Bane and Lutz, eds., Organization of American Relief, 26-27, 32-33
Bane
26
Organization of American Relief
38
Edward Hurley Diary, Nov. 16, 1918, Hurley Papers.
39
Crosby to Tasker Bliss, Dec. 26 and 27, 1918
Jan. 21, 1919, box 76, file 11, Tasker Bliss Papers, Library of Congress
Tasker Bliss Diary, Dec. 28, 1918, box 65, ibid
Crosby to McAdoo, Dec. 27, 1918, file 800.51/127, RG 59
Crosby to Wilson, Jan. 17, 1919, series 5-B, box 9, Wilson Papers
Crosby to Secretary of the Treasury Carter Glass, Jan. 18, 1919, box 104, Peace Commission, RG 39
40
McAdoo to Crosby, Nov. 22 and Dec. 7, 1918
McAdoo to House, Dec. 11, 1918
Glass to Wilson, Dec. 19, 1918
Glass to Norman Davis, Jan. 15, 1919
U.S. De- partment of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Paris Peace Conference, 1919 (13 vols., Washington, D.C., 1942-1947), II, 535-540, 544- 546
Abrahams, "American Bankers and the Economic Tactics of Peace," 573-574
Abrahams
573
American Bankers and the Economic Tactics of Peace
Van Meter, "The United States and European Recovery," 26-46, 64-104
Van Meter
26
The United States and European Recovery
41
Crosby to McAdoo, Nov. 13, 1918
McAdoo to Crosby, Nov. 22, 1918
Foreign Relations: Peace Conference, II, 533-536
533
II
Foreign Relations: Peace Conference
42
Davis to Wilson, Feb. 2, 1919
Baruch to Wilson, Feb. 4, 1919, series 5-B, box 13, Wilson Papers
Vance McCormick Diary, June 10, 1919, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library
43
Nina J. Noring, "American Coalition Diplomacy and the Armistice, 1918-1919" (Ph.D. dis- sertation, University of Iowa, 1972), 219-225
44
Baruch to Wilson, Feb. 12, 1919, box 61, Davis Papers.
45
Baruch to Wilson, May 7, 1919
Ray Stannard Baker, Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement (3 vols., Garden City and New York, 1923), III, 347-351
Baker
347
III
Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement
1923
46
Wilson to Davis, April 15, 1919, series 5-B, box 28, Wilson Papers.
47
Minutes of the American Economic Group, March 15, 1919, box 46, Davis Papers
Davis to Joseph Grew, April 12, 1919
Davis to Bratiano, April 15 and 25, 1919
Lansing to the State Department, April 16, 1919
Bratiano to Davis, May 17, 1919, file 871.51/34, 31a, 50, Record Group 256
Davis to Wilson, May 7, 1919, series 5-B, box 35, Wilson Papers
48
Davis to Wilson, June 7, 1919, series 5-B, box 43, Wilson Papers.
49
the minutes of the Raw Material Section of the Supreme Economic Council, April 4, 1919
Minute 5, Vol. 9, pp. 25-32
50
Baruch to Cecil, April 12, 1919
Baker, Wilson and World Settlement, III, 332- 334
Baker
332
III
Wilson and World Settlement
ibid., 331-332
"Summary of a Memor- andum by Lord Robert Cecil on the Economic Situation of Europe," n.d., box 16a, Davis Papers
51
Cecil to Baruch, April 14, 1919
Baker, Wilson and World Settlement, III, 335
Baker
335
III
Wilson and World Settlement
Baruch to Davis, April 30 and May 2, 1919
Davis to Baruch, May 1, 1919, box 46, Davis Papers
52
Lloyd George to Wilson, April 23, 1919
Baker, Wilson and World Settlement, III, 336-338
Baker
336
III
Wilson and World Settlement
53
Norman Davis, "Personal and Confidential Observations of Mr. Norman Davis to the President on the Subject of the German Reply to the Allied Conditions of Peace, with Particular Reference to the Reparation Clauses, Paris, June 1st, 1919,"
Norman Davis, "Peace Conference Notes," n.d., box 16a, Davis Papers
"Stenographic Report of a Meeting Between the President, the Commissioners, and the Technical Advisers of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace, June 3, 1919
Foreign Relations: Peace Conference, XI, 197-222
54
Wilson to Lloyd George, April 23, 1919
Baker, Wilson and World Settlement, III, 344-346
Baker
344
III
Wilson and World Settlement
55
Vance McCormick Diary, April 25, 1919.
56
Wilson to Lloyd George, April 23, 1919
Baker, Wilson and World Settlement, III, 344-346
Baker
344
III
Wilson and World Settlement
Davis to Rathbone, April 24, 1919
Rathbone to Davis, April 28, 1919
Strauss to Davis and Lamont, April 28, 1919
Davis and Lamont to Rathbone and Leffingwell, April 29, 1919
Leffingwell to Davis, May 2, 1919
Leffingwell to Davis, May 6, 1919, all in box 16a, Davis Papers
Leffingwell and Rathbone to Davis, April 26, 1919
Leffingwell to Davis, April 28, 1919
Letterbooks, vol. 28, Russell C. Lef- fingwell Papers, Library of Congress
57
McCormick Diary, June 10 and 23, 1919
minutes of the Supreme Economic Council, June 10 and 22, 1919
Foreign Relations: Peace Conference, X, 344-356, 414-427
344
X
Foreign Relations: Peace Conference
58
Hoover to Wilson, April 11, 1919
minutes of a meeting of the Supreme Economic Council, June 30, 1919
Foreign Relations: Peace Confer- ence, X, 434-435
434
X
Foreign Relations: Peace Conference
59
Minutes of a meeting of the Council of Four, June 28, 1919
Foreign Relations: Peace Conference, VI, 741-743
741
VI
Foreign Relations: Peace Conference
60
Davis and Lamont to Rathbone, May 2, 1919, box 16a, Davis Papers.
61
Leffingwell to Davis, May 6, 1919, box 83, Record Group 56
RG 56
62
Lamont to Wilson, May 15, 1919
Baker, Wilson and World Settlement, III, 352-362
Baker
352
III
Wilson and World Settlement
Lamont to Leffingwell, May 29, 1919, box 277, RG 56
63
Lamont to Wilson, May 15, 1919
Baker, Wilson and World Settlement, III, 352-362
Baker
352
III
Wilson and World Settlement
64
Robert H. Van Meter, "Herbert Hoover and the Economic Reconstruction of Europe, 1918-1921," paper delivered at the first Hoover Centennial Seminar, Febru- ary, 1974.
Van Meter
February
Herbert Hoover and the Economic Reconstruction of Europe, 1918-1921
1974
65
Van Meter, "The United States and European Recovery," 115-120
Van Meter
115
The United States and European Recovery
Owen to Wilson, July 16, 1919, series 2, box 190
Wilson Papers, and Owen to Wilson, Nov. 6, 1919, file 79161, RG 40
Redfield to Wilson, July 29 and 31, 1919, series 4, box 484, Wilson Papers
Lewis, America's Stake in Inter- national Investments, 195
Lewis
195
America's Stake in International Investments
Kaufman, "The Organizational Dimension of United States Economic Foreign Policy," 41-43
Kaufman
41
The Organizational Dimension of United States Economic Foreign Policy
66
Glass to Rathbone, Nov. 13, 1919, box 104, Peace Commission, RG 39
Norman Davis to Paul Warburg, Nov. 26, 1919
Warburg Memorial, RG 39
Davis to Rathbone, Dec. 2, 1919, box 105, Reconstruction-European, RG 39
R. C. L. [Leffingwell], "Memorandum of Statements made by Mr. Warburg, January 8th and 9th, Concerning His Proposed Memorial," Jan. 10, 1920, Letterbooks, vol. 39, Leffingwell Papers
67
Glass to Homer Ferguson, Jan. 28, 1920
Letterbooks, vol. 40, Leffingwell Papers
68
Davis to Rathbone, April 3, 1920
Foreign Relations, 1920 (3 vols., Washing- ton, D.C., 1935), I, 90-91
90
I
Foreign Relations, 1920
1935
Davis to Rathbone, March 27, 1920
Letterbooks, vol. 42a, Leffingwell Papers
Davis to Rathbone, April 11, 1920, Warburg Memorial, RG 39
69
Ronald C. Lindsay to Leffingwell, Feb. 9, 1920
Robert Skinner to the Secretary of State, Feb. 13, 1920
Morning Post, Feb. 12, 1920, file 841.51/248, RG 59
Feb. 12
Morning Post
1920
Celier to Davis, May 25 and June 24, 1920, box 26, Davis Papers
"Confidential Conversations with Diplo- mats, July 1, 1920," box 9, ibid
Houston to Wilson, April 30, 1920
Wilson to Houston, May 3, 1920, series 2, box 196, Wilson Papers
70
Houston to Lindsay, March 1, 1920
Letterbooks, vol. 41, Leffingwell Papers
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