[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Fawn M. Brodie, Thaddeus Stevens, Scourge of the South (New York, 1966), 358.
Fawn
358
Thaddeus Stevens, Scourge of the South
1966
2
The Nation, April 4, 1867.
April 4
The Nation
1867
3
Robert V. Hine, California's Utopian Colonies (New Haven, 1966), 3-5
Robert
3
California's Utopian Colonies
1966
Vernon Louis Parrington, Jr., American Dreams: A Study of American Utopias (2nd ed., New York, 1964), 219-222
Parrington
2
219
American Dreams: A Study of American Utopias
1964
4
Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Alaska, 1730-1885 (New York, 1960), 606.
Bancroft
606
History of Alaska, 1730-1885
1960
5
Abbot Emerson Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607-1776 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1947)
Smith
Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607-1776
1947
Alan George Lewers Shaw, Convicts and the Colonies: A Study of Penal Transportation ... of the British Empire (London, 1966)
Shaw
Convicts and the Colonies: A Study of Penal Transportation ... of the British Empire
1966
Hans von Hentig, Punishment, Its Origin, Purpose and Psychology (London, 1937)
Hentig
Punishment, Its Origin, Purpose and Psychology
1937
Heinrich Oppenheimer, The Rationale of Punish- ment (London, 1913)
Oppenheimer
The Rationale of Punishment
1913
6
Blake McKelvey, American Prisons: A Study in American Social History Prior to 1915 (Chicago, 1936), 25.
McKelvey
25
American Prisons: A Study in American Social History Prior to 1915
1936
7
Gabriel Tarde, Penal Philosophy (Boston, 1912), 526.
Tarde
526
Penal Philosophy
1912
8
Henry Wood Elliott, Our Arctic Province: Alaska and the Seal Islands (New York, 1886), 116-117
Elliott
116
Our Arctic Province: Alaska and the Seal Islands
1886
Donald J. Orth, Dictionary of Alaska Place Names (Washington, D.C., 1967), 212
Donald
212
Dictionary of Alaska Place Names
1967
Bancroft, Alaska, 452
Bancroft
452
Alaska
9
Gen. J. Davis to Col. E. K. Pratt, Dec. 16, 1867
National Archives Microfilm, Rec- ord Group 98, "Letters Sent, 1867-1879,"
"List of soldiers and civilians incarcer- ated" (hereafter cited as NA, Micro RG 98)
10
Alaska is Valarie K. Stubbs, "The U.S. Army in Alaska, 1867-1877: An Experiment in Military Government" (M.A. thesis, American University, 1956)
11
William H. Bell, The Quiddities of An Alaskan Trip (Portland, Ore., 1873)
William
The Quiddities of An Alaskan Trip
1873
John G. Brady, "Conditions in Alaska," Lake Mohonk Conference ... Report of the 31st Annual Meeting, 1913 (New York, 1913), 186
John
Conditions in Alaska
186
Lake Mohonk Conference ... Report of the 31st Annual Meeting
1913
Keith A. Murray, The Modocs and Their War (Norman, 1959), 204
Keith
204
The Modocs and Their War
1959
12
Gen. J. Davis to Maj. Gen. Fry, Feb. 9, 1869, NA, Micro RG 98.
13
Alta California, Oct. 22, 1869.
Oct. 22
Alta California
1869
14
The West Shore, June, 1876
June
The West Shore
1876
Rudolf Glanz, The Jews in American Alaska, 1867- 1880 (New York, 1953), 26 if
Glanz
26
The Jews in American Alaska, 18671880
1953
Bancroft, Alaska, 607 ff
Alaska Herald, July 24, 1873
July 24
Alaska Herald
1873
15
Ted C. Hinckley, "The United States Frontier at Sitka, 1867-1873," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, LX (1969), 57-65.
Ted
57
LX
Pacific Northwest Quarterly
1969
16
Charles Nordhoff, "What Shall We Do with Scroggs?" Harpers Monthly, LXVII (June, 1873), 41-44.
Nordhoff
June
41
LXVII
Harpers Monthly
1873
17
Dumas Malone, ed., Dictionary of American Biography (New York, 1962), VII, 548
Malone
548
VII
Dictionary of American Biography
1962
National Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York, 1901), XI, 226
226
XI
National Cyclopaedia of American Biography
1901
New York Times, July 16, 1901
July 16
New York Times
1901
San Francisco Chronicle, July 15, 1901
July 15
San Francisco Chronicle
1901
18
Nordhoff, "What Shall We Do," 43.
Nordhoff
43
What Shall We Do
19
Ibid., 44
The Communistic Societies of the United States (New York, 1875)
20
Alaska Herald, June 9, 1873.
June 9
Alaska Herald
1873
21
Alta California, Jan. 25, Feb. 11 and 15, 1874
Jan. 25
Alta California
1874
Sacramento Daily Union, Feb. 16, 1874
Feb. 16
Sacramento Daily Union
1874
22
Alta California, Feb. 15, 1874.
Feb. 15
Alta California
1874
23
"Joint Resolution Relative to the Establishment of a Penal Colony in Alaska," Journal of the Assembly During the Twentieth Session of the Legislature of the State of California, 1873-1874 (Sacramento, 1874), 624.
624
Journal of the Assembly During the Twentieth Session of the Legislature of the State of California, 1873-1874
1874
24
Alaska Herald, Feb. 27, 1874.
Feb. 27
Alaska Herald
1874
25
"Petition of Citizens of California ... Alaska Ship-Building and Lumber Com- pany.. ." S. Misc. Doc. 13, 43 Cong., 2 sess. (1874)
Vilhjalmur Stefansson, The North- ward Course of Empire (New York, 1922), 74
Stefansson
74
The Northward Course of Empire
1922
26
Alaska Herald, July 13, 1874
July 13
Alaska Herald
1874
H. H. Bancroft Collection, Scrapbook, Vol. 81, p. 130
27
Alaska Herald, Dec. 15, 1879.
Dec. 15
Alaska Herald
1879
28
George Wardman, A Trip to Alaska: A Narrative of What Was Seen and Heard During a Summer Cruise in Alaska Waters (Boston, 1885), 161-162.
Wardman
161
A Trip to Alaska: A Narrative of What Was Seen and Heard During a Summer Cruise in Alaska Waters
1885
29
Alaska Appeal, March 6, 1879.
March 6
Alaska Appeal
1879
30
McKelvey, American Prisons, 68
McKelvey
68
American Prisons
J. P. Shallo, A Bibliographical Manual for the Student of Criminology (Philadephia, 1935)
Shallo
A Bibliographical Manual for the Student of Criminology
1935
31
Richard McGee, "What's Past is Prologue," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, CCCLXXXI (an., 1969), 7.10.2307/1038227
7
32
Anthony Platt, "The Rise of the Child Saving Movement: A Study in Social Pol- icy and Correctional Reform," ibid., 22-25.
Platt
22
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
33
Tarde, Penal Philosophy, 94
Tarde
94
Penal Philosophy
Alice Felt Tyler, Freedom's Ferment: Phases of American Social History from the Colonial Period to the Outbreak of the Civil War (New York, 1962), 265-281
Tyler
265
Freedom's Ferment: Phases of American Social History from the Colonial Period to the Outbreak of the Civil War
1962
34
Transactions of the National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Disci- pline (New York, 1870), 458.
458
Transactions of the National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline
1870
35
Third Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Charities of the State of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, 1873), cxi and cxxvii-cxxix.
cxxvii
cxi
Third Annual Report of the Board of Commissioners of Public Charities of the State of Pennsylvania
1873
36
McKelvey, American Prisons, 77
McKelvey
77
American Prisons
Daniel Glaser, "Penology: The Field," Interna- tional Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New York, 1968), XI, 515
Glaser
515
XI
International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences
1968
37
"Report on the International Prison Congress ...," H. Exec. Doc. 86, 45 Cong., 3 sess. (1879), 14, 19.
38
Tarde, Penal Philosophy, 526
Tarde
526
Penal Philosophy
DAB, X, 385
McKelvey, American Prisons, 69 ff
McKelvey
69
American Prisons
39
Jeannette Paddock Nichols, Alaska: A History of Its Administration . . . Under the Rule of the United States (Cleveland, 1924)
Nichols
Alaska: A History of Its Administration . . . Under the Rule of the United States
1924
J. W. Powell, "Report on the . .. Commercial Route between the United States, Asiatic Russia, and Japan ... on the Construction of the Railroad Pro- posed," S. Misc. Doc. 22, 49 Cong., 2 sess. (1886).
40
Cong. Rec., 49 Cong., I sess. (Dec. 10, 1885), 152.
41
Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference of Charities and Corrections, Held at Boston, July 25-30, 1881 (Boston, 1881), 231
231
Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference of Charities and Corrections, Held at Boston, July 25-30
1881
McKelvey, American Prisons, 76-77, 81 ff
McKelvey
76
American Prisons
42
Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the National Prison Association of the United States, Held at Toronto, September 10-15, 1887 (Chicago, 1889), 115
115
Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the National Prison Association of the United States, Held at Toronto, September 10-15, 1887
1889
"Penal Colony in Alaska," H. Rept. 1685, 49 Cong., I sess. (1886)
Cong. Rec., 49 Cong., I sess. (April 21, 1886), 3659
43
The Alaskan (Sitka), Feb. 20, 1886.
Feb. 20
The Alaskan (Sitka)
1886
44
Report of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Bar Association, Held at Saratoga Springs, New York, August 18-20, 1886 (Philadelphia, 1886), 75-76.
75
Report of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Bar Association, Held at Saratoga Springs, New York, August 18-20, 1886
1886
45
Report of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the American Bar Association, Held at Saratoga Springs, New York, August 17-19, 1887 (Philadelphia, 1887), 324-326.
324
Report of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the American Bar Association, Held at Saratoga Springs, New York, August 17-19, 1887
1887
46
Second Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1886 (Convict Labor) (Washington, D.C., 1887), 383.
383
Second Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1886
1887
47
Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the National Prison Association ... Toronto . . . 1887 (Chicago, 1889), 270-283.
270
Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the National Prison Association ... Toronto . . . 1887
1889
48
Ibid.
49
C. F. Amery, "An American Penal Colony," North American Review, CCCLXIX (Aug,.1887) 213
Amery
Aug.
213
CCCLXIX
North American Review
1887
50
Edmund Noble, "No American Siberia," North American Review, CCCLXX (Sept., 1887), 330.
Noble
Sept.
330
CCCLXX
North American Review
1887
51
George Kennan, "Siberia and the Exile System," Century Magazine, XXXVI (May, 1888) to XLII (Oct., 1891)
Walter LaFeber, The New Empire: An Interpretation of Ameri- can Expansion, 1860-1900 (Ithaca, New York, 1963), 319
LaFeber
319
The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1860-1900
1963
52
New York Times, Jan. 22, 1890.
Jan. 22
New York Times
1890
53
Washington Post, Jan. 22 and 27, 1890.
Jan. 22
Washington Post
1890
54
Sioux City Journal, Feb. 2, 1890.
Feb. 2
Sioux City Journal
1890
55
The Alaskan (Sitka), Feb. 7, 1890
Feb. 7
The Alaskan (Sitka)
1890
Robert Huhn Jones, The Centennial Years: Political and Economic History of America from the Late 1870's to the Early 1890's (New York, 1907), 26-28
Jones
26
The Centennial Years: Political and Economic History of America from the Late 1870's to the Early 1890's
1907
56
Frederick H. Wines, Punishment and Reformation: An His- torical Sketch of the Rise of the Penitentiary System (New York, 1895), 180
Frederick
180
Punishment and Reformation: An Historical Sketch of the Rise of the Penitentiary System
1895
Proceed- ings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction . . . , 1885 (Boston, 1885), 9
9
Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction . . . , 1885
1885
Frederick H. Wines, "American Prisons in the Tenth Census," Proceedings of the National Prison Association . . . 1888 (Chicago, 1889), 255-259
Frederick
255
Proceedings of the National Prison Association . . . 1888
1889
57
George C. Noyes, "The New Northwest Territory," The Dial, VIII (Sept., 1887), 93
George
Sept.
93
VIII
The Dial
1887
Henry M. Field, Our Western Archipelago (New York, 1895), 101-102
Henry
101
Our Western Archipelago
1895
"Memorial of the Chamber of Commerce of the City of Seattle ... ," S. Misc. Doc. 93, 51 Cong., 2 sess. (1891)
Frederick Warren Jenkins and Elizabeth Lowell Black, "Penal Farms and Farm Colonies," Russell Sage Foundation Library Bulletin, No. 6 (August, 1914)
Jenkins
6
Russell Sage Foundation Library Bulletin
1914
H. H. B. Meyer, "Brief List of References on State and Municipal Farm Colon- ies" (Unpublished Library of Congress Bibliography, Washington, D.C., 1916)
58
"a mere shift; it is a mere expedient." Cong. Rec., 48 Cong., 1 sess. (Jan. 23, 1884), 587
David Starr Jordan, in "Colonial Lessons of Alaska," Atlantic Monthly, LXXXII (Nov. 1898), 577-591
Jordan
Nov.
577
LXXXII
Atlantic Monthly
1898
59
Washington Post of Jan. 9, 1890
Jan. 9
Washington Post
1890
William T. Hagan, American In- dians (Chicago, 1961), 66 ff
William
66
American Indians
1961
60
New York Times, Feb. 4, 1878
Feb. 4
New York Times
1878
William D. Boyce, United States Colonies and Dependencies (Chicago, 1914), 342-343
William
342
United States Colonies and Dependencies
1914
61
Orvin Larson, American Infidel: Robert G. Ingersoll (New York, 1962), 70
Larson
70
American Infidel: Robert G. Ingersoll
1962
Washington Post, Dec. 21, 1889
Dec. 21
Washington Post
1889
62
Richard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Es- says (New York, 1947), 145 ff.
Hofstadter
145
The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays
1947
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