Border fences have a long history in the United States, and that history is deeply entangled with the rise of the carceral state. As fences along the U.S.-Mexico border grew over the course of the twentieth century, they increasingly restricted the mobility of migrants both as they crossed the U.S.-Mexico divide and once they were within U.S. territory. This article analyzes how fear of being apprehended, arrested, detained, or deported has forced migrants to remain in the shadows; and it argues that as border fences expanded in length and height, they transformed the United States into a massive, carceral state.
Caging Out, Caging In:Building a Carceral State at the U.S-Mexico Divide
Mary E. Mendoza is an assistant professor of history and Latino/a studies at Penn State University, the David J. Weber Fellow for the Study of Southwestern America at the Clements Center for Southwest Studies, and a Nancy Weiss Malkiel Scholar for the Woodrow Wilson Foundation.
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Mary E. Mendoza; Caging Out, Caging In:Building a Carceral State at the U.S-Mexico Divide. Pacific Historical Review 4 September 2020; 88 (1): 86–109. doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/phr.2019.88.1.86
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