Foodways are an excellent site for tracking the interaction between Anthroposophy, the spiritual science founded by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925), and other emerging spiritual traditions. Participants in practical initiatives inspired by Anthroposophy—including Waldorf schools, biodynamic farms, and Camphill intentional communities—follow various eating practices. Some choose vegetarian diets featuring whole grains and abundant vegetables, like their counterparts in the Gaian wing of the New Age movement. Others prefer the “Nourishing Traditions” approach of Sally Fallon, which rejects processed foods and celebrates traditional cuisines that use large amounts of animal fat. This diversity of foodways, paradoxically, confirms Wouter Hanegraaff’s characterization of Anthroposophy as too “clearly demarcated” to be considered a full part of the New Age movement. What demarcates the Anthroposophical approach to food is not any specific dietary choice but the persistent reminder that individual freedom is the most important requirement in a spiritual approach to food.

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