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19th-Century Music (2012) 36 (1): 46–57.
Published: 01 July 2012
...David Hyun-Su Kim Hairpins, the notation symbols < and >, are today universally accepted as equivalent to the markings crescendo and diminuendo , calling for an increase or decrease in volume. This view is irreconcilable with the scores of the core German repertoire of the nineteenth century...