[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
"Open-air opera" in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera, ed. Harold Rosenthal and John Warrack (2nd edn. London, 1979)
Rosenthal
Open-air opera
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera
1979
2
Julian Budden, The Op- eras of Verdi, vol. III: From Don Carlos to Falstaff (New York, 1981), pp. 25, 39
Budden
25
III
The Operas of Verdi
1981
3
Budden, The Operas of Verdi, III, 15.
15
4
Hellmuth Christian Wolff, Oper: Szene und Darstellung von 1600 bis 1900, vol. IV, no. 1, Musikgeschichte in Bil- dern, ed. Heinrich Besseler and Max Schneider (Leipzig, n.d.), p. 15.
Wolff
15
Oper: Szene und Darstellung von 1600 bis 1900,
5
Ser Marc'Antonio by Angelo Anelli, was set by Stefano Pavesi in 1810
Ser Marc'Antonio by Angelo Anelli,
Was set by Stefano Pavesi
1810
William Ashbrook, Donizetti and His Operas (Cambridge, 1982), p. 174
Ashbrook
174
Donizetti and His Operas
1982
6
David Charlton, Grétry and the Growth of Opéra- Comique (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 208-10.
Charlton
208
Gritry and the Growth of OpiraComique
1986
7
Charlton, Gritry and Opira-Comique, p. 277.
Charlton
277
Gritry and Opira-Comique
8
Lang, "French Opera and the Spirit of the Rev- olution," in Irrationalism in the Eighteenth Century, ed. Harold E. Pagliaro, vol. II, Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture (Cleveland, 1972), p. 106
Lang
French Opera and the Spirit of the Revolution
106
II
Irrationalism in the Eighteenth Century
1972
9
Jacques Attali, Noise: The Political Economy of Music, trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis, 1985; original French edn. 1977).
Attali
Noise: The Political Economy of Music, trans
1985
10
Charlton, Grétry and Opéra-Comique, pp. 248-51.
Charlton
248
Grétry and Opéra-Comique
11
Dent, The Rise of Romantic Opera, ed. Winton Dean (Cam- bridge, 1976)
Dent
The Rise of Romantic Opera
1976
Dahlhaus, Nineteenth-Century Music, trans. J. Bradford Robinson (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1989; orig- inal German edn. 1980), p. 19
Dahlhaus
19
Nineteenth-Century Music, trans
1980
12
Dahlhaus, Nineteenth-Century Music, pp. 66, 129 (cap- tion to fig. 28).
66
13
Philip Gossett, "Becoming a Citizen: The Chorus in Risorgimento Opera," Cambridge Opera Journal 2 (1990), pp. 44, 48.10.2307/823791
44
14
Dahlhaus, Nineteenth-Century Music, p. 128.
128
15
Die "Couleur locale" in der Oper des 19. Jahrhun- derts, ed. Heinz Becker (Regensburg, 1976).
Die
Couleur locale" in der Oper des 19. Jahrhunderts
1976
16
Wolff, Oper, p. 15.
15
17
Manfred Boetzkes in "Opera," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1980), vol. 13, pp. 629-34
Boetzkes
Opera
629
13
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians
1980
History of Opera, ed. Sadie (London, 1989; New York, 1990), pp. 248-52
248
History of Opera
1990
Cathérine Join-Dièterle, Les Dicors de scene de l'Opéra de Paris a l'époque romantique (Paris, 1988)
Join-Dieterle
Les Dicors de scene de l'Opera de Paris a l'dpoque romantique
1988
18
E. J. Hobsbawm, Na- tions and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Re- ality (Cambridge, 1990), esp. chap. 1, "The Nation as Novelty: From Revolution to Liberalism."
Hobsbawm
chap. 1
Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme
1990
19
M. C. Druskin and Ju. V. Keldy', Ocerki po istorii russkoj muzyki 1790-1825 (Leningrad, 1956), pp. 297-98
Druskin
297
Ocerki po istorii russkoj muzyki 1790-1825
1956
Michel Maximovitch, L'Opèra russe 1731- 1935 (Lausanne, 1987), pp. 41-42.
Michel
41
L'Opèra russe 1731-1935
1987
21
Manfred Kelkel, Naturalisme, vérisme et realisme dans l'opéra de 1890 á 1930 (Paris, 1984), esp. pp. 189-90, 199- 203
Kelkel
189
Naturalisme, vérisme et realisme dans l'opera de 1890 a 1930
1984
22
Pacini's volcanic spectacle, L'ultimo giorno di Pompei, 1825
Pacini's volcanic spectacle, L'ultimo giorno di Pompei
1825
Offenbach's Orphee aux enfers, 1858
Offenbach's Orphee aux enfers
1858
La belle Hélene, 1864
La belle Hélene
1864
23
Voltaire, "Dissertation sur la tragédie ancienne et mod- erne" (preface to Sémiramis), rpt. in Œuvres completes de Voltaire (Paris, 1877): Thdatre, III, 491-92
24
Michel Noiray gives a list of operas created in Paris during the Revolution in "Les Créations d'Opéra a Paris de 1790 à 1794: Chronologie et sources parisiennes," Orphé Phrygien: les musiques de la revolution, ed. Jean-Rémy Julien and Jean-Claude Klein (Paris, 1989), pp. 196-203.
Michel
Les Créations d'Opéra a Paris de 1790 à 1794: Chronologie et sources parisiennes
196
Orphée Phrygien: les musiques de la revolution
1989
25
Marie-Joseph Désiré Martin Barouillet, preface to Fabius (1792), p. iii
Marie-Joseph
iii
Preface to Fabius
1792
M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet in "The New Repertory at the Opéra during the Reign of Terror: Revo- lutionary Rhetoric and Operatic Consequences," in Music and the French Revolution, ed. Malcolm Boyd (Cambridge, 1992), p. 138
Elizabeth
The New Repertory at the Opéra during the Reign of Terror: Revolutionary Rhetoric and Operatic Consequences
138
Music and the French Revolution
1992
26
Fulcher, The Na- tion's Image: French Grand Opera as Politics and Politi- cized Art (Cambridge, 1987)
Fulcher
The Nation's Image: French Grand Opera as Politics and Politicized Art
1987
Steven Huebner, "Opera Audiences in Paris 1830-1870," Music & Letters 70 (1989), 206-2510.2307/736886
206
27
Join-Diéterle in Les Décors de scéne de l'Opéra de Paris, p. 23
Diéterle
23
Les Decors de scene de l'Opeŕa de Paris
Charles Maurice, Histoire an- ecdotique du theatre, de la litterature (Paris, 1856) II, 32
Maurice
32
II
Histoire anecdotique du theatre
1856
28
Robert Wangermée, "Introduction à une sociologie de l'opéra," Revue Belge de musicologie 20 (1966), 159.
Wangermée
159
20
Revue Belge de musicologie
1966
29
Gosta M. Bergman, Lighting in the Theatre (Stock- holm, 1977), pp. 273-77.
Bergman
273
Lighting in the Theatre
1977
30
Donald Jay Grout with Hermine Weigel Williams, A Short History of Opera (3rd edn. New York, 1988), p. 4143
Donald Jay Grout with Hermine Weigel Williams
414
A Short History of Opera
1988
31
"Boccane- gra, Simone" by G. Balbi in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol. 11 (Rome, 1969)
Boccanegra
11
Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani
1969
Daniel Waley, The Italian City-Republics (2nd edn. London and New York, 1978), esp. the chapter "Internal Divisions."
Waley
2
The Italian City-Republics
1978
"Left and Right" in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Political Institu- tions, ed. Vernon Bogdanor (Oxford, 1987)
Left and Right
The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Political Institutions
1987
32
Antonio Gramsci: Selections from Cultural Writings, ed. David Forgacs and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, trans. William Boelhower (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), p. 207.
207
Antonio Gramsci: Selections from Cultural Writings
1985
33
Theodor W. Adorno, Introduction to the Sociology of Music, trans. E. B. Ashton (New York, 1976; original German edn. 1962), p. 81.
Adorno
81
Introduction to the Sociology of Music, trans
1962
34
Ibid., pp. 81, 83.
81
35
Wangermée, "Introduction á une sociologie de l'opéra," p. 165.
Wangermée
165
Introduction á une sociologie de l'opéra
36
Joseph Kerman, Opera as Drama (New York, 1956), p. 22.
Kerman
22
Opera as Drama
1956
37
Peter Conrad, Romantic Opera and Literary Form (Ber- keley and Los Angeles, 1977), p. 1
Conrad
1
Romantic Opera and Literary Form
1977
Gary Schmidgall, Literature as Opera (New York, 1977)
Schmidgall
Literature as Opera
1977
38
Budden, Operas of Verdi, III, 119.
119
39
Adorno, Introduction to the Sociology of Music, pp. 79-80.
Adorno
79
Introduction to the Sociology of Music
40
Herbert Lindenberger, Opera: The Extravagant Art (Ithaca, N. Y. 1984).
Lindenberger
Opera: The Extravagant Art
1984
41
Catherine Clément, Opera, or the Undoing of Women, trans. Betsy Wing (Minneapolis, 1988; original French edn. 1979)
Clément
Opera, or the Undoing of Women, trans
1979
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