[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Anne Dzamba Sessa, "At Wagner's Shrine: British and American Wagnerians," in Wagnerism in European Culture and Poli- tics, ed. David C. Large and William Weber (Ithaca, N. Y., 1984), pp. 246- 77
Sessa
At Wagner's Shrine: British and American Wagnerians
246
Wagnerism in European Culture and Politics
1984
2
William Weber, "Wagner, Wagnerism, and Musical Idealism," in Wagnerism in European Culture and Politics, pp. 47-48
Weber
Wagner, Wagnerism, and Musical Idealism
47
Wagnerism in European Culture and Politics
3
Richard Wagner, "The Work and Mission of My Life," North American Review 129 (August, 1879), pp. 109, 111.
Wagner
August
109
129
North American Review
1879
4
Theodore Thomas, A Musical Autobiography, ed. George P. Upton (Chicago, 1905), I, 62-78 and passim
Thomas
62
I
A Musical Autobiography
1905
George W. Curtis, "The Editor's Easy Chair," Harper's, September 1865, p. 533
Curtis
September
533
Harper's
1865
Bergmann quoted in Henry T. Finck, Wagner and His Works (New York, 1893, rpt. 1901), II, 510-11
Finck
510
II
Wagner and His Works
1901
Klaus Wust and Norbert Muehlen, Span 200: The Story of German-American Involvement in the Founding and Development of America (Philadelphia, 1976), p. 53
Wust
53
Span 200: The Story of German-American Involvement in the Founding and Development of America
1976
5
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, trans. Henry Reeve (New York, 1945), esp. vol. II, chapters 11, 13, and 14
de Tocqueville
chapters 11, 13, and 14
II
Democracy in America
1945
F. O. Matthiessen, American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman (New York, 1941)
Matthiessen
American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman
1941
Constance Rourke, The Roots of American Culture and Other Essays (New York, 1942), pp. 3-59
Rourke
3
The Roots of American Culture and Other Essays
1942
Lawrence J. Friedman, Inventors of the Promised Land (New York, 1975), chapters 1, 2, 7, and 8
Friedman
chapters 1, 2, 7, and 8
Inventors of the Promised Land
1975
Daniel Walker Howe, The Po- litical Culture of the American Whigs (Chicago, 1979), pp. 1-4 and 290-91
Howe
1
The Political Culture of the American Whigs
1979
6
Christopher Hatch, "Music for America: A Critical Con- troversy of the 1850s," American Quarterly 14 (1962), 578- 8610.2307/2710133
578
The American Composer Speaks: A Historical Anthol- ogy 1770-1965, ed. Gilbert Chase (Baton Rouge, 1966), pp. 74-75
74
The American Composer Speaks: A Historical Anthology 1770-1965
1966
Alan H. Levy, Musical Nationalism: American Composers' Search for Identity (Westport, 1983), chap. 1
Levy
chap. 1
Musical Nationalism: American Composers' Search for Identity
1983
7
Walt Whitman, "Democratic Vistas," in Whitman: Poetry and Prose (New York, 1982), p. 977
Whitman
Democratic Vistas
977
Whitman: Poetry and Prose
1982
Edmund Wilson, Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (New York, 1962), pp. 174-218, 635- 742
Wilson
174
Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War
1962
8
Horace Traubel, With Walt Whitman in Camden (New York, 1903), II, 116
Traubel
116
II
With Walt Whitman in Camden
1903
II, 116
9
"Wagner in the Bowery," Scribner's Monthly, May 1871, p. 215
May
215
Scribner's Monthly
1871
William Sloane Kennedy, "The Obsolescence of Barrel- Organ Poetry," The Critic, 26 May 1883, pp. 39-40
Kennedy
26 May
39
The Critic
1883
[George W. Curtis], "The Editor's Easy Chair," Harper's, June 1874, pp. 131-32
Curtis
June
131
Harper's
1874
Finck, Wagner and His Works, II, 514
Finck
514
II
Wagner and His Works
Willa Cather's short story, "A Wagner Matinee," in The Troll Garden (New York, 1903), pp. 193-210
Cather
A Wagner Matinee
193
The Troll Garden
1903
10
Gilbert Chase, America's Music, (2nd edn. New York, 1966), p. 624
Chase
2
624
America's Music
1966
Irving Kolodin, The Met- ropolitan Opera 1883-1939 (New York, 1940), pp. 12, 31- 39
Kolodin
12
The Metropolitan Opera 1883-1939
1940
Ronald L. Davis, Opera in Chicago (Chicago, 1966), pp. 69-74
Davis
69
Opera in Chicago
1966
11
Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man: On the Social Psy- chology of Capitalism (New York, 1974), pp. 206-10
Sennett
206
The Fall of Public Man: On the Social Psychology of Capitalism
1974
Douglas Arrell, "Palmy Days at the Opera," in Bernhardt and the Theatre of Her Time, ed. Eric Salmon (Westport, 1984), pp. 17-30
Arrell
Palmy Days at the Opera
17
Bernhardt and the Theatre of Her Time
1984
Mei- stersinger in 1885
Meistersinger
1885
Tristan und Isolde (1886)
Tristan und Isolde
1886
Siegfried and Götterdiammerung (1887)
Siegfried and Götterdiammerung
1887
Rheingold (1888)
Rheingold
1888
Fliegende HollÄander (1889)
Fliegende Holliander
1889
Kolodin, Metropolitan Opera, pp. 24-31
Kolodin
24
Metropolitan Opera
12
New York Times, various articles on Parsifal premiere, 25 December 1903, particularly on p. 2
25 December
2
New York Times
1903
13
New York Times, 13 December 1903, p. 8
13 December
8
New York Times
1903
"Parsifal: Penny on Hymn Tunes," 3 January 1904, p. 17
3 January
17
Parsifal: Penny on Hymn Tunes
1904
James G. Huneker, "Bayreuth," Musical Courier, 12 August 1896, p. 16
Huneker
12 August
16
Musical Courier
1896
Filson Young, The Wagner Stories (New York, 1907), p. i
Young
i
The Wagner Stories
1907
Fred Somkin, "Zion's Harp by the East River: Jewish- American Popular Songs in Columbus's Golden Land, 1890-1914," Perspectives in American History 2 (1985), 195n
Somkin
195
2
Perspectives in American History
1985
14
Conried," New York Times, 30 September 1903, p. 5
Conried
30 September
5
New York Times
1903
Richard Aldrich, "'Parsifal' a Triumph," New York Times, 25 December 1903, p. 3
Aldrich
25 December
3
New York Times
1903
15
William J. Henderson, "Manon," New York Times, 15 Jan- uary 1899, magazine, p. 9
Henderson
15 January
9
New York Times
1899
17 September 1899, p. 18
16
"Metropolitan Opera House," New York Times, 15 Febru- ary 1904, p. 8.
15 February
8
New York Times
1904
17
W. Porter Ware and Thaddeus C. Lockard, Jr., P. T. Barnum Presents Jenny Lind (Baton Rouge, 1980), pp. 4-5.
Ware
4
Barnum Presents Jenny Lind
1980
18
Ann Douglas, The Feminization of American Culture (New York, 1977), esp. p. 12
Douglas
12
The Feminization of American Culture
1977
Finck, Wagner and His Works II, 488
Finck
488
II
Wagner and His Works
Thomas, A Musical Autobiography II, 23, 25
Thomas
23
II
A Musical Autobiography
19
Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie (London, 1920), pp. 47-48.
47
Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie
1920
20
William Foster Apthorp, "Music," Atlantic Monthly, Feb- ruary 1874, pp. 252-53.
Apthorp
February
252
Atlantic Monthly
1874
21
joseph Sohn, "The Mission of Richard Wagner," North American Review 192 (1910), 658
Sohn
658
192
North American Review
1910
Henry T. Finck, Wagner Handbook for the Festival Concerts [program notes] (New York, 1884), pp. 43-44
Finck
43
Wagner Handbook for the Festival Concerts
1884
Eric Bentley, A Century of Hero Worship (New York, 1944), discusses Wagner's role as hero in nineteenth-century European culture, pp. 171-88
Bentley
171
A Century of Hero Worship
1944
22
"At the Shrine of St. Wagner," in What is Man? And Other Es- says (New York, 1917), pp. 218-22
At the Shrine of St. Wagner
218
What is Man? And Other Essays
1917
23
[Untitled], Dwight's Journal of Music 35 (1875), 23
23
35
Dwight's Journal of Music
1875
Finck, Wagner and His Works II, 505-07
Finck
505
II
Wagner and His Works
Abram Loft, "Richard Wagner, Theodore Thomas, and the American Centennial," Musical Quarterly 37 (1951), 184- 20110.2307/739895
184
Alice Asbury, "Wagner and the Pianist Billow," Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 1872, p. 140
Asbury
Feb. 1872
140
Atlantic Monthly
1872
24
Washington Gladden, Witnesses of the Light (New York, 1903), pp. 197, 203-04, 232-33, 235.
Gladden
197
Witnesses of the Light
1903
25
William J. Henderson, Preludes and Studies (New York, 1892), p. 28
Henderson
28
Preludes and Studies
1892
Anna Alice Chapin, Wotan, Siegfried, and Brünnhilde (New York, 1899), pp. 88-89
Chapin
88
Wotan, Siegfried, and Briinnhilde
1899
John Cawelti, Apostles of the Self-Made Man: Changing Concepts of Suc- cess in America (Chicago, 1965), chapters 4-6
Cawelti
chapters 4-6
Apostles of the Self-Made Man: Changing Concepts of Success in America
1965
26
Librettos of the Wagner Operas (New York, 1904)
Librettos of the Wagner Operas
1904
27
john Sullivan Dwight, "Music as a Means of Culture," At- lantic Monthly, September 1870, pp. 323-24
Dwight
September
323
Atlantic Monthly
1870
George L. Os- good, "Pure Music vs. Wagnerism," Dwight's Journal of Music 35 (1875), 4-5
Osgood
4
35
Dwight's Journal of Music
1875
Letters of Henry Adams, ed. Worthington C. Ford (New York, 1938), p. 338
338
Letters of Henry Adams
1938
28
Howe, Political Culture of the American Whigs, pp. 3-4, 81-84.
Howe
3
Political Culture of the American Whigs
29
Barrett Wendell, English Composition (New York, 1891; rpt. edn. 1912), p. 278
Wendell
1912
278
English Composition
1891
Jacques Barzun, Darwin, Marx, Wagner: Critique of a Heritage (Boston, 1941), pp. 323-24
Barzun
323
Darwin, Marx, Wagner: Critique of a Heritage
1941
30
Thomas, Musical Autobiography I, 101, 104
Thomas
101
I
Musical Autobiography
James G. Huneker, Overtones (New York, 1909), p. 71
Huneker
71
Overtones
1909
31
William J. Henderson, "Das Rheingold," New York Times, 13 January 1899, p. 6
Henderson
13 January
6
New York Times
1899
The First Hundred Years: Metropolitan Opera Centennial Exhibi- tion [catalog] (New York, 1983), p. 9
9
The First Hundred Years: Metropolitan Opera Centennial Exhibition
1983
32
Asbury, "Wagner and the Pianist Bülow," pp. 142-43
Asbury
142
Wagner and the Pianist Bülow
"Mrs. Craigie Scores Wagner," New York Times, 17 Sep- tember 1899, p. 18
17 September
18
New York Times
1899
33
T. Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: Anti-Modernism and the Transformation of Ameri- can Culture 1880-1920 (New York, 1981), pp. 204-05
Lears
204
No Place of Grace: Anti-Modernism and the Transformation of American Culture 1880-1920
1981
Ralph Adams Cram, My Life in Architecture (Boston, 1936), pp. 8-9, 18
Cram
8
My Life in Architecture
1936
G. Stanley Hall, Life and Confes- sions of a Psychologist (New York, 1924), pp. 84-86ff., 115
Hall
84
Life and Confessions of a Psychologist
1924
Sohn, "The Mission of Richard Wagner," pp. 657-70
Sohn
657
The Mission of Richard Wagner
Hen- derson, Preludes and Studies, p. 111
Henderson
111
Preludes and Studies
Richard Aldrich, " 'Parsifal' and Its Place in New York," New York Times, 27 December 1903, p. 12
Aldrich
27 December
12
New York Times
1903
34
Huneker, Overtones, p. 320
Huneker
320
Overtones
Bar- zun, Darwin, Marx, Wagner, p. 338
Barzun
338
Darwin, Marx, Wagner
Richard B. Hovey, John Jay Chapman: An American Mind (New York, 1959)
Hovey
John Jay Chapman: An American Mind
1959
35
Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order 1877-1920 (New York, 1967)
Wiebe
The Search for Order 1877-1920
1967
Lears, No Place of Grace, introduction
Lears
No Place of Grace
John Higham, "The Re-Orientation of American Culture in the 1890s," in Writing American History (Bloomington, Ind., 1973), pp. 73-102
Higham
The Re-Orientation of American Culture in the 1890s
73
Writing American History
1973
36
Huneker, Overtones, pp. 327-30.
Huneker
327
Overtones
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