Este artículo versa sobre la deuda externa de México en el siglo dicinueve. Revela la manera en que los acreedores británicos, representados por su Committee of Mexican Bondholders (Comité de Tenedores de Bonos Mexicanos) y su agente, Francis Falconnet, negociaron el pago en efectivo de 2.5 millones de dólares del dinero de indemnización pagada por Estados Unidos después de la guerra México-Estados Unidos de 1846-1848. Las transacciones financieras internacionales; los intereses gubernamentales franceses, estadounidenses y británicos; la política mexicana doméstica y la probable corrupción de la élite política mexicana, son algunos de los temas explorados en este ensayo. This article concerns Mexico's nineteenth-century foreign debt. It reveals how British creditors, represented by their Committee of Mexican Bond holders and its agent, Francis Falconnet, negotiated payment in cash of 2.5 million of the indemnity money paid by the United States after the Mexican-U. S. War of 1846-1848. International financial transactions; French, U.S., and British government interests; and Mexican domestic politics and probably corruption in Mexico's political elite are among several themes in this essay.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
M. Dublán y J.M. Lozano, vol. 5 Legislación mexicana (Mexico: Imprenta del Copmercio, 1876), 743-44
Dublán
743
5
Legislación mexicana
1876
3
J. Bazant, Historia de la deuda exterior de México, 1823-1946 (Mexico: El Cole- gio de México, 1968)
Bazant
Historia de la deuda exterior de México, 1823-1946
1968
C. Marichal, A Century of Debt Crises in Latin America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989)
Marichal
A Century of Debt Crises in Latin America
1989
F.G. Dawson, The First Latin American Debt Crisis (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1990)
Dawson
The First Latin American Debt Crisis
1990
4
B. Tenenbaum, The Politics of Penury. Debts and Taxes in Mexico, 1821-1856 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986), 77.
Tenenbaum
77
The Politics of Penury. Debts and Taxes in Mexico, 1821-1856
1986
5
N. de Zamacois, Historia de Mijico (Barcelona & Mexico, 1880), vol. 13, 839-71
Zamacois
839
13
Historia de Mijico
1880
6
Bazant. Historia de la deuda, 47
Bazant
47
Historia de la deuda
E. Turlington, Mexico and Her Foreign Cred- itors (New York: Columbia University Press, 1930), 11
Turlington
11
Mexico and Her Foreign Creditors
1930
7
Proceedings of the Committee of the Holders of Mexican Bonds, Held at the City of London Tavern, the 25th of May 1830 (London: Effingham Wilson Royal Exchange, 1830)
Proceedings of the Committee of the Holders of Mexican Bonds, Held at the City of London Tavern, the 25th of May 1830
1830
8
Bazant, Historia de la deuda exterior 70-1.
Bazant
70
Historia de la deuda exterior
9
Tenenbaum, Politics of Penury, 98
Tenenbaum
98
Politics of Penury
Turlington, Mexico and Her Foreign Cred- itors, 96
Turlington
96
Mexico and Her Foreign Creditors
10
M. Payno, Mexico and Her Financial Questions with England, Spain, and France (Mexico: 1862), 17-8
Payno
17
Mexico and Her Financial Questions with England, Spain, and France
1862
F. de Arrangoiz, Piezasjustificativas del arreglo de la Deuda Externa de México que se celebró en 6 dejulio de 1849 entre el Exmo Sr Min- istro de Hacienda Don Francisco de Arangoizy Don Guillermo Parish Robertson, comi- sionado especial de los tenedores de bonos mexicanos en Londres (Mexico: 1849)
Arrangoiz
Piezasjustificativas del arreglo de la Deuda Externa de México que se celebró en 6 dejulio de 1849 entre el Exmo Sr Ministro de Hacienda Don Francisco de Arangoizy Don Guillermo Parish Robertson, comisionado especial de los tenedores de bonos mexicanos en Londres
1849
W.P. Robertson, The Foreign Debt of Mexico, Being the Report of a Special Mission to that State Undertaken on Behalf of the Bondbolders (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1850)
Robertson
The Foreign Debt of Mexico, Being the Report of a Special Mission to that State Undertaken on Behalf of the Bondbolders
1850
11
W.R. Manning, ed., vol. 9 of Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States. Inter-American Affairs, 1831-1860 (Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1937), 225-6
Manning
225
9
Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States. Inter-American Affairs, 1831-1860
1937
12
Times, (21 March 1850)
21 March
Times
1850
13
D.C.M. Platt, Foreign Finance in Continental Europe and the US.A.: 1815-1870 (London: Allen & Unwin, 1984) 125.
Platt
125
Foreign Finance in Continental Europe and the US.A.: 1815-1870
1984
14
T.W Ward to Barings, 13 August 1849, in "The Baring Papers for 1846-1850 re- lating to the war between the United States and Mexico." Copies from the manuscripts in the Public Archives of Canada, at Ottawa, 186-7
15
Report of the Committee of Mexican Bondholders, 23 April 1852 (London: Letts, Son and Steer, 1852), appendix 3.
Report of the Committee of Mexican Bondholders
1852
16
Times, (18-19 September 1850).
Times
1850
17
Ibid., (24 December 1850).
18
Ibid., 9, (14 May 1851)
AHGE, exp. 40.11.6
19
Times, (23 August 1851)
23 August
Times
1851
20
Times, 19 September 1851
19 September
Times
1851
21
I.L. Goldsmid to M. Payno, 24 June 1851, AHGE, exp. 40.11.6
22
Times, (11 March 1852).
11 March
Times
1852
23
Times, (10, 13 February 1852)
Times
1852
24
Ibid., (27 February 1852).
25
Ibid., (11 March 1852).
27
Times, (24 April 1852).
24 April
Times
1852
28
Baring Brothers to E.J. Forstall, 1 March 1852, Baring Archive, Private Letter Books, 1852, fol. 89
D.C. M. Platt, "Finanzas britáinicas en México, 1821-1867", Historia Mexicana, 32 (1982): 244
Platt
244
32
Historia Mexicana
1982
29
R.A. Brenan to M. de Esparza, Mexico City, 16 April 1852
El Mon- itor Republicano, (25 August 1852).
El Monitor Republicano
1852
30
ibid.
32
El Monitor Republicano, (25 August 1852)
El Monitor Republicano
1852
El Universal, (18, 19 June), (16 July 1852)
El Universal
1852
El Constitucional, (23 June 1852)
El Constitucional
1852
33
T. Green, Precious Heritage: Three Hundred Years of Mocatta & Goldsmid (London: Rosendale Press, 1984), 31
Green
31
Precious Heritage: Three Hundred Years of Mocatta & Goldsmid
1984
34
Report of the Committee of Mexican Bondholders, (24 January 1853) (London: Letts, Son, and Steer, 1853), 30
30
Report of the Committee of Mexican Bondholders
1853
35
Times, (27 July
27 July
Times
3, 26 August 1852)
36
F. de P. Falconnet, Manifestación dirigida a la Cámara de Diputados por el agente de los tenedores de bonos mexicanos (Mexico: 1852).
Falconnet
Manifestación dirigida a la Cámara de Diputados por el agente de los tenedores de bonos mexicanos
1852
37
El Mo- nitor Republicano, (25 August 1852)
El Monitor Republicano
1852
38
ibid
39
El Universal, (12 June 1852)
El Universal
1852
El Monitor Republicano, (26 August 1852)
El Monitor Republicano
1852
40
El Monitor Republicano, (26 August 1852)
El Monitor Republicano
1852
41
Falconnet's letter is in El Universal, (9 June 1852).
Falconnet's letter is in El Universal
1852
42
El Monitor Republicano, (25, 26 August 1852)
El Monitor Republicano
1852
43
El Monitor Republicano, (26 June 1852)
El Monitor Republicano
1852
44
El Universal, (6 May and 6 September 1852)
El Universal
1852
El Constitucional, (23 June 1852)
El Constitucional
1852
El Monitor Republicano, (26 August 1852)
El Monitor Republicano
1852
Turlington, Mexico and Her Foreign Creditors, 103
Turlington
103
Mexico and Her Foreign Creditors
45
El Universal, (21 December 1852)
El Universal
1852
ibid., (20 November 1852)
ibid., 22 December 1852
Esparza's defence was published separately as Exposición del Ex-Ministro de Hacienda que suscribe a la sección del Gran Jurado de la Cdmara de Senadores, con motivo de la acusación por la orden relativa a la libre exportación de los dos millones y medio de pesos para los acreedores de Bonos Mexicanos en Londres (Mexico; Impr. De J.M. Lara, 24 December 1852)
Esparza
Exposición del Ex-Ministro de Hacienda que suscribe a la sección del Gran Jurado de la Cdmara de Senadores, con motivo de la acusación por la orden relativa a la libre exportación de los dos millones y medio de pesos para los acreedores de Bonos Mexicanos en Londres
1852
46
Esparza's letter is in El Universal, (13 March 1853).
Esparza
El Universal
1853
47
El Orden, (14 March 1853)
El Orden
1853
48
El Universal, (14 March 1853).
El Universal
1853
49
El Orden, (16 March 1853).
El Orden
1853
50
El Universal, (16 March 1853).
El Universal
1853
51
Ibid., (19 March 1853)
"Mr Falconnet was in possession of letters committing persons high in authority on this matter,"Morning Chron- icle, (27 January 1853)
27 January
Morning Chronicle
1853
52
El Universal, (17 March 1853).
El Universal
1853
53
Ibid., 23, (29 March 1853).
54
Times, (5 May 1853).
5 May
Times
1853
56
El Universal, (22 April 1853)
El Universal
1853
El Siglo XIX, (16 April 1853)
El Siglo XIX
1853
57
P.W. Doyle to Baring Brothers, 30 May 1853, Baring Archive, 4.5.21
El Universal, (26 Septem- ber 1854)
El Universal
1854
58
Aguirre's statement is in El Universal, (3 June 1853).
Aguirre
El Universal
1853
59
Manning, Diplomatic Correspondence, vol. 9, 225-6.
Manning
225
9
Diplomatic Correspondence
60
Times, (16 May 1854)
16 May
Times
1854
Dublán y Lozano, Legislación mexicana, vol. 6, 731-2
Dublán y Lozano
731
6
Legislación mexicana
61
El Universal, (23, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30 September 1854)
El Universal
1854
El Siglo XIX starting on (24 September 1854)
El Siglo XIX
1854
62
Baring Archive, Private Letter Books, 1852, fol. 89.
63
Baring Archive, 4.5.23.
65
P. Doyle to Baring Brothers, 3 May 1853, Baring Archive, 4.5.21.
66
Morning Chronicle, (27 January 1853).
Morning Chronicle
1853
67
Letter of 3 July 1852, Baring Archive, 4.5.25.
68
Letter of 2 November 1853, ibid.
69
Letters of 1 June, 5 July, 1 September 1854, ibid.
70
Dawson, The First Latin American Debt Crisis, 197
Dawson
197
The First Latin American Debt Crisis
Turlington, Mexico and Her Foreign Creditors, 200-11
Turlington
200
Mexico and Her Foreign Creditors
71
Tenenbaum, "Merchants, Money and Mischief: The British in Mexico, 1821- 1860," The Americas, 35 (1979), 317-4010.2307/980977
317
"Neither a Borrower Nor a Lender Be: Financial Constraints and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,"in The Mexican and the Mexican Amer- ican Experience in the Nineteenth Century, ed. J.E. Rodríguez (Tempe, Arizona: Bilingual Press, 1989)
Neither a Borrower Nor a Lender Be: Financial Constraints and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Mexican and the Mexican American Experience in the Nineteenth Century
1989
"La deuda externa mexicana y el Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo," in Pa- sado y presente de la deuda externa de Mexico (Mexico: Instituto Mora, 1988), 43-55
La deuda externa mexicana y el Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo
43
Pasado y presente de la deuda externa de Mexico
1988
R. Liehr, "La deuda exterior de Mexico y los "merchant bankers" britfinicos, 1821-1860," Ibero-Amerikanisches Archive, Neve Folge, Jahrgang 9, Heft 1, 1983, pp. 415-39
Liehr
La deuda exterior de Mexico y los "merchant bankers" britfinicos, 1821-1860
415
Ibero-Amerikanisches Archive
1983
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