Albert Bregman’s (1990) book Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound has had a tremendous impact on research in auditory neuroscience. Here, we outline some of the accomplishments. This review is not meant to be exhaustive, but rather aims to highlight milestones in the brief history of auditory neuroscience. The steady increase in neuroscience research following the book’s pivotal publication has advanced knowledge about how the brain forms representations of auditory objects. This research has far-reaching societal implications on health and quality of life. For instance, it helped us understand why some people experience difficulties understanding speech in noise, which in turn has led to development of therapeutic interventions. Importantly, the book acts as a catalyst, providing scientists with a common conceptual framework for research in such diverse fields as speech perception, music perception, neurophysiology and computational neuroscience. This interdisciplinary approach to research in audition is one of this book’s legacies.