Involuntary musical imagery (INMI) describes the everyday phenomenon of having a tune stuck in the head. Research has established the ubiquity of this form of spontaneous cognition but the predictive role of individual differences is still debated. This study examines the impact of everyday musical behaviors and subclinical obsessive compulsive attributes on INMI experiences. In total 1,536 participants completed three online questionnaires; a novel inventory of musical behavior and INMI, and a standardized obsessive compulsion (OC) inventory. Exploratory factor analysis ( N = 512) and structural equation modelling ( N = 1,024) were applied. Everyday singing and music listening positively predict length and frequency of reported INMI episodes, respectively. No relationships were found with musical training. High OC was positively related to INMI frequency and disturbance, but only indirectly to INMI episode length and unpleasantness. The identified contributory factors of INMI experiences are discussed in the context of musical memory and spontaneous mental activity.
individuals with congenital amusia have difficulty recognizing and discriminating melodies. While much research has focused on the perceptual deficits of congenital amusics, the extent to which these deficits have an impact on the ability to engage with and appreciate music remains unexplored. The current study used experience sampling methodology to identify distinct patterns of music-related behavior in individuals with amusia and matched controls. Cluster analysis was used to group individuals according to the similarity of their behavior, regardless of their status as amusic or control. This yielded a two-cluster solution: one cluster comprising 59% of the amusic sample and 6% of controls and the other comprising 41% of the amusic sample and 94% of controls. Comparisons of the two clusters in terms of specific aspects of music listening behavior revealed differences in levels of music engagement and appreciation. Further comparisons provided support for the existence of amusic subgroups showing distinct attitudes toward music. The findings are discussed in relation to social, contextual, and demographic factors.
THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ASCERTAIN whether deficits in music perception impact upon music appreciation. Likert ratings were gathered from congenital amusics and matched controls concerning the degree to which individuals incorporate music in their everyday lives, are able to achieve certain psychological states through music, and feel positively about music imposed upon them. Those with amusia reported incorporating music into everyday activities to a lesser degree than controls. They also reported experiencing fewer changes in psychological states when listening to music and felt more negatively about imposed music compared to controls. However, the scores of some amusic individuals fell within the control range on these questionnaires, providing some evidence for a developmental dissociation between music perception (impaired) and music appreciation (normal). Potential reasons for this dissociation are discussed.