Richard Wallaschek's (1860 1917) is most widely known for his contributions to comparative musicology; however, he also made significant contributions to the field of music psychology. From 1890 to 1895, Wallaschek pursued interdisciplinary studies at the British Museum in London. During this time Wallaschek proposed theories about the perception and production of music. According to Wallaschek, the perception of music occurs through two types of mental representation: Tonvorstellung (tone representation), which referred to the perception of individual musical elements, and Musikvorstellung (music representation), which referred to the perception of t he higher-order structure of music. Wallaschek emphasized Gestalt-like concepts in his discussion of Musikvorstellung. He also proposed a theory about the production of music, arguing that music and language involve different brain processes. For Wallaschek, music is an expression of emotion while language is an expression of the intellect. Although not widely recognized, Wallaschek was an early contributor to the field of music psychology.
This study examined differences in the spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) signal in terms of music training and gender. Coherence estimates obtained by spectral analysis provided an efficacious method to study these differences. In the first study, differences in the spontaneous EEG between subjects with and without music training were observed. Subjects with music training exhibited significantly higher coherence values both within and between cerebral hemispheres when compared with subjects without music training. The most striking differences were observed in the two lowest (delta and theta) and two highest (beta 1 and beta 2) bands, with differences in the temporoparietal regions of both hemispheres being most prominent. The findings are discussed in terms of specialized organization of brain activity that influences cortical connectivity. Using the same method, differences in spontaneous EEG were also found between male and female subjects. Females tended to have significantly higher interhemispheric coherence values when compared with males. Both findings are also supported by recently discovered anatomic differences.