The early hopes for the Seeger melograph, a device for recording the pitch and intensity of vocal performances, have not been realized because musicologists found the graphic traces of pitch and intensity too difficult to interpret. In this article, proposals are advanced for redesigning the melograph to provide researchers with more symbolically meaningful information. This involves abandoning the notion of fully separable parameters, relaxing the constraint that representations be culturally neutral, and developing ways to represent musical motion qua motion. The discussion is illustrated with redesigned melograms drawn from analyses of a particularly florid excerpt of South- Indian singing. Comparisons between the performances of a South-Indian singer and the performances of two of her students suggest ways in which cultural conditioning can affect vocal performance.

[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Freeman (1948, p. 78).
3
"De Sonis. Sonus quippe tanti apud nos loci est, quanti in Geometricis signum; in Arithmeticis singulum. Phthongos Sonos dicimus. Verum phthongus dicitur vocis modula- tae particula, una intentione producta" (Capella, book 10).
4
Mary Louise Serahne (1987)
5
Obata and Kobayashi (1938).
7
Mantle Hood's The Ethnomusicologist (1982, pp. 50-121),
Seeger (1951, 1957, 1966).
Tove et al. (1966).
8
Jairazbhoy (1977)
9
Dusek, Schalk, and McMahan (1983).
10
Master's Thesis (1980)

References

References
Boethius, A. S. M. De Institutione musica [Ger. trans, by Oscar Paul in Boethius und die Griechische Harmonik (Leipzig: 1872), pp. 15-16].
Capella. Martianus. De nuptiis philoloziae et Mercurii.
Dusek, L., Schalk, T. B., ÔC McMahan, M. Voice recognition joins speech on programmable board. Electronics, April 21, 1983, 56 (8), 18-132.
Freeman, K. Ancilla to the pre-Socratic philosophers. Oxford: Blackwell, 1948.
Hood, M. The ethnomusicologist (2d ed.). Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1982.
Jairazbhoy, N. The "objective" and subjective view in music transcription. Ethnomusicol- ogy, 1977, 21, 263-274.
Joshi, B. Understanding Indian music. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1963.
List, G. The reliability of transcription. Ethnomusicology, 1974, 18, 353-378.
Metfessel, M. F. Phonophotography in folk music: American negro songs in new notation (with an introduction by C. E. Seashore). Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1928.
Obata, J., & Kobayashi, R. An apparatus for direct-recording the pitch and intensity of sound. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1938, 10, 147-149.
Schneider, M. El origen musical de los animales-simbolos. Madrid: 1946 [Ital. trans, by Ga- etano Chiappini in Gli animali simbolici (Milan: Rusconi, 1986), p. 8].
Seeger, C. An instantaneous music notator. journal of the international Folk Music Council, 1951, 3, 103-107.
Seeger, C. Toward a universal sound-writing for musicology. Journal of the International Folk Music Council 1957, 9, 63-66.
Seeger, C. Versions and variants of the tunes of "Barbra Allen." Selected Reports: Institute of Ethnomusicology, UCLA, 1966, 1, 120-163.
Serafine, M. L. Music as cognition: The development of thought in sound. New York: Co- lumbia Universitv Press. 1987.
Sessions, R. The musical experience of composer, performer, listener. Princeton, NJ: Prince- ton University Press, 1950.
Tove, P. A., Norman, B., Isaakson, L., & Czekajewski, T. Direct-recording frequency and amplitude meter for analysis of musical and other sonic waveforms. Journal of the Acous- tical Society of America, 1966, 39, 362-371.
This content is only available via PDF.